Vol 5, No 1 (2015)

REVIEW ARTICLES

СHROMOSOMALLY INTEGRATED HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6

Nikolskiy M.A., Golubcova V.S.

Abstract

The review focuses on the problem of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (CIHHV-6). The main features of CIHHV-6 are wide prevalence (near 1% of population), ability to inheritance, which leads to problems of diagnostics of acute HHV-6 infection. Also there is the opportunity of activation CIHHV-6, linked to immunodeficiency and conditions after transplantation. Potentially CIHHV-6 can be associated with the abnormalities of nervous system development, autoimmune disorders and conditions, related to damage of telomere. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):7-14
pages 7-14 views

STRATEGY OF PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN PROKARYOTES

Andrukov B.G., Somova L.M., Timchenko N.F.

Abstract

Programmed cell death (PCD) was first studied in eukaryotic organisms. This system also operates in the development life cycle of prokaryotes. The system PCD in microorganisms is activated a wide range of signals in response to the stresses associated with adverse environmental conditions or exposure to antibacterial agents. The results of numerous studies in the past decade allow considering the system PCD in prokaryotes as an evolutionary conservation of the species. These results significantly expanded understanding of the role of PCD in microorganisms and opened a number of important areas of research of the morphological and molecular genetic approaches to the study of death strategies for the survival in bacterial populations. The purpose of the review is to summarize the morphological and molecular genetic characteristics of PCD in prokaryotes which are real manifestations of the mechanisms of this phenomenon. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):15-26
pages 15-26 views

PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR OF YERSINIA PESTIS

Evseeva V.V., Platonov M.E., Kopylov P.K., Dentovskaya S.V., Anisimov A.P.

Abstract

Plague has been the cause of three pandemics and has led to the death of millions of people. Plague is a typical zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis that circulates in populations of wild rodents inhabiting natural plague foci on all continents except for Australia. Transmission of plague is provided by flea bites. Circulation of Y. pestis in natural plague foci is supported by a numerous of pathogenicity factors. This review explores one of them, plasminogen activator Pla. This protein is one of representatives of omptins, a family of enterobacterial outer membrane proteases that are responsible for colonization of specific organs or even infection generalization as a result of successful overcoming of the host innate immunity. The review reflects the history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, physicochemical properties. Highly purified preparations of plasminogen activator are deficient in enzymatic activities but renaturation in the presence of Y. pestis lipooligosaccharide restores enzymatic properties of Pla. This pathogenicity factor is absent in representatives of the most ancient phylogenetic group of the plague pathogen, bv. caucasica, while the ancestor of other groups of Y. pestis subsp. microtus obtained in result of horizontal transfer Pla isoform with characteristics similar to properties of omptins from the less virulent enterobacteria. After that in the course of microevolution the “classic” isoform of Pla with increased protease activity was selected that is typical of all highly virulent for humans strains of Y. pestis subsp. pestis. The “classic” isoform of Pla Y. pestis is functionally similar to mammalian plasminogen activators transforming plasminogen into plasmin with the help of limited proteolysis. Pla protease activating plasminogen and also degrading the main plasmin inhibitor — α2-antiplasmin and, respectively, determining Y. pestis ability to lyse fibrin clots preventing bacteria dissemination after bites of infected fleas or subcutaneous challenge is believed to be the main Y. pestis factor responsible for generalization of infectious process. Pla-mediated ability of Y. pestis for selective binding with extracellular matrix and basal membranes may promote further hydrolysis of these structures by the host’s plasmin and overcoming tissue barriers by the pathogen. Y. pestis plasminogen activator also hydrolyses C3 complement component, human antimicrobial peptide — cathelicidin LL-37 and such cytokines as tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 8 and protein 1 of monocyte chemotaxis. The main endogenic TFPI tissue factor pathway inhibitor also highly susceptible to proteolytic action of Pla, and efficiency of TFPI inactivation is much higher than efficacy of plasminogen activation. The review also debates the possibility of using Pla as a molecular target for prophylaxis and treatment of plague. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):27-36
pages 27-36 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT PROTEIN CRM197 IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

Dukhovlinov I.V., Fedorova E.A., Bogomolova E.G., Dobrovolskaya O.A., Chernyaeva E.N., Al-Shekhadat R.I., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

The CRM197 is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin having a single amino acid substitution of a glycine for a glutamic acid in position 52. Being naturally nontoxic, CRM197 is a promising adjuvant and ideal carrier protein for conjugate vaccines. Typically, production of diphtheria toxin and some of the non-toxic proteins are carried out by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Production of recombinant protein CRM197 in Escherichia coli is advantageous. It is simple, cheap and permits production of the target protein in a short time using a non-pathogenic microorganism. In this study patented high-yield-producing E. coli strain was used. As a part of the study the following steps were taken: protocol adjustment for induction of crm197 gene, production and purification of recombinant CRM197 by ion-exchange, hydrophobic and gel-filtration chromatography. The purity of the final preparation reached 97%.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):37-44
pages 37-44 views

ETIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA EXACERBATION AND CHRONICAL BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS

Krivitskaya V.Z., Sominina A.A., Petrova M.A., Amosova I.V., Mayorovа V.G., Pisareva M.M., Buzitskaya J.V., Grudinin M.P., Golovanova A.K., Petrova E.R., Kovaleva L.F., Kiseleva E.A.

Abstract

Exacerbation of bronchial asthma (BA) and common deterioration of health during chronic bronchiolitis obliterans (ChBO) are associated with viral infections in adults in 64 and 83% respectively. Mixed virus-viral associations were shown in 21–25% of cases. Respiratory syncytial infections were diagnosed with the highest frequency (50%) in patients with BA. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and adenoviral infections dominated in persons with ChBO in 50 and 42% of cases, respectively. Response of virus-specific IgG in patients with BA and ChBO indicates the acute course of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (63% of seroconversions). There were no reactions of IgG which is specific to respiratory syncytial virus in 75% of cases and to adenovirus in 83% of cases, that is the risk factor for occurrence of latent/persistent infection. Presence of structural components of respiratory syncytial virus in the upper respiratory tract had been revealed in three patients with asthma within at least 21–28 days. Respiratory syncytial viral infections and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 in patients with BA and ChBO are characterized by the presence of an allergic component, which is indicated by the high levels of virus-specific IgE in blood. An adenoviral infection, in contrast, has no such peculiarity. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):45-54
pages 45-54 views

ALGORITHM OF LABORATORY CONFIRMATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MEASLES INFECTION AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM IN RUSSIA

Mamaeva Т.А., Zheleznova N.V., Nаumova М.А., Govoruhina M.V., Kalashnikova N.A., Bichurina M.A., Mukomolov S.L.

Abstract

The modified algorithm for laboratory confirmation and differential diagnosis of measles infection was developed and used in the laboratory studies of the Russian Laboratory Network (RLN) on Measles/Rubella Surveillance within the routine and active measles infection control. The algorithm consists in detecting the IgM, IgG and IgG avidity measles virus antibodies. To approve the modified algorithm sera samples of 637 patients with the measles diagnosis and 423 patients with rush and fever were studied. The IgG avidity measles testing is advisable in the following cases: a) only one serum sample is available, b) the recommended time interval between the 1st and 2nd sera samples taking is not observed, c) no diagnostic increase in titers of the IgG measles virus antibodies is evidenced, d) for determination of the type of immune response (primary or secondary) and e) to exclude the “false positive” results at the stage of detecting the measles virus IgM antibodies. Moreover the data obtained evidenced the involvement of the nonvaccinated (79.7%) as well as of vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses of measles vaccine (20.3%) population into the measles epidemical process. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):55-62
pages 55-62 views

THE CELLULAR AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY STATE DEPENDING ON THE OUTCOME OF A WIDESPREAD PURULENT PERITONITIS

Savchenko A.A., Borisov A.G., Zdzitoveckij D.E., Kudryavtsev I.V.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the state of cellular and humoral immunity in patients with widespread purulent peritonitis (WPP) in depending on the disease outcome. The study involved 50 patients with community-acquired and hospital origin WPP. The testing of blood lymphocyte phenotype was performed by flow cytometry. The concentration of immunoglobulins and cytokines were measured by ELISA. It was established that the immune system state by WPP is characterized by leukocytosis, relative lymphopenia, increasing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as decrease of the cytotoxic and activated T-lymphocytes content. The state of the cellular immunity in case of unfavorable outcome of the WPP is characterized by decreased of the γδT-lymphocytes and NKT-cells levels with increasing amounts of the B1-cells. The immune system state in case of a favorable outcome of the WPP is characterized by a decrease in the number of NK-cells in peripheral blood and increased levels of Th2-lymphocytes. Increasing of the Th2-cells number determines the increase in stimulating effects of T-cell on the humoral immunity, that is manifested in increasing concentrations of IL-4 and IgA, which is an important factor in the immunopathogenesis of the WPP determining its favorable outcome. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):63-70
pages 63-70 views

ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR INFLUENZA AND ARVI IN KYRGYZSTAN

Nurmatov Z.S.

Abstract

There are 4 programs of electronic monitoring over influenza and ARI in the Kyrgyz Republic. The computer monitoring of infectious diseases (CMID) was implemented in the country since 2005. Three more advanced software for the electronic surveillance over ARI and influenza were introduced in 2010–2011. The analysis of monthly data on influenza and ARI cases is possible in 49 cities and districts of the country using CMID. At the beginning of 2010, the data started to be transferred to the World Health Organization on a weekly basis and to be published at the EuroFlu site. The implementation of new program of sentinel surveillance sites allowed to obtain information about the incidence and etiology of influenza and ARI on-line. Since 2012 the electronic system of monitoring, mapping and analysis (MMA) was introduced in all regions of the country for assessment of the epidemiological situation; this system allows to transfer data by mobile phones . The use of different programs improved the prompt access to information, provided an opportunity to analyze the epidemical situation in real-time regime. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):71-78
pages 71-78 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CYTOKINES SERUM LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH CHICKEN POX

Zheleznikova G.F., Lobzin Y.V., Skripchenko N.V., Ivanova G.P., Skripchenko E.Y., Monakhova N.E.

Abstract

The serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 were tested in ELISA in 74 children with different courses of chicken pox. Moderate severity course of chicken pox was accompanied by significant increase of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10 levels, but severe course of infection was associated with cytokine response reduction. Manifestation of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was accompanied by the rise of IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and IL-10 levels during the second week of disease. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):79-84
pages 79-84 views

IMMUNOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULOSIS

Tarasova L.G., Strel’tsova E.N.

Abstract

In 46 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were treated in 2014, the features of the immunological status by defining standard immunograms and serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-10, as well as autoantibodies to collagen I and III type have been studied. It was established that the hyperproduction of T lymphocytes mainly Th2 link (increased relative to the Trel content of 17.4% of the Tabs — 30.4%, IL-1β — 32.6%, IL-10 — 43.5%) arises because of the decrease in the phagocytic activity of the cells (ratio of active phagocytes 1.98±1.07 at a rate of 2.5–2.9; percentage phagocytosis 56.35±13.89% at a rate of 65–95%). The increase in the content of B-lymphocytes (Brel — 84.8%, in the Babs — 43.5%) and circulating immune complexes, in some cases combined with decreased levels of immunoglobulins G, A, M, believe, intended to compensate the negative impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis the body of the patient. The larger the specific process, the more intense the metabolism of connective tissue, stimulates the formation of type-specific autoantibodies involved in the elimination of connective tissue components. Detecting increased levels of autoantibodies to collagen type I — 50% and type III — 26.1%, probably due to the fact that in the initial stage of development of pulmonary tuberculosis «pulmonary collagen» is involved in the pathological process is less than I type. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):85-88
pages 85-88 views

DURATION OF POSTVACCINAL IMMUNITY AGAINST HEPATITIS B IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN ST. PETERSBURG

Kalinina Z.P., Dar’ina M.G., Movchan K.N., Mamicheva O.Y., Gagarkina I.B., Averina T.Y., Balabash O.A., Yefimova L.I., Potemkina I.V.

Abstract

Immunization against hepatitis В is the most effective method of preventing this disease. Study of quantitative characteristics of postvaccinal immunity against viral hepatitis В in 214 health care workers from different institutions of St. Petersburg has shown that HBV vaccine provides a long term immunity in 80% of cases with the absence of manifest forms of the disease. The duration of circulation of high titers of antibodies depended on the age of people when vaccination was provided. The highest level of immunity was observed in people vaccinated before the age of 30 years (84,0–90,6%). Reduction of immunity level in vaccinated health care workers after 5 years from the date of vaccination requires revaccination against viral hepatitis B after pre-vaccination screening. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2015;5(1):89-92
pages 89-92 views

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