Vol 3, No 3 (2013)

LECTURES

ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VACCINATION Part 3. Ethical principals of eradication of infectious diseases

Kubar O.I., Bichurina M.A., Romanenkova N.I., Asatrian A.G.

Abstract

Abstract. The current article develops the conception of previous publications on ethical, legal and social aspects of the infectious diseases. Special aspect of this article is the fact, that in its frame the results of multidisciplinary analysis of the eradication of infectious disease (poliomyelitis) are presented for the first time. Such manysided investigation of the problem of the eradication of infectious disease was based on the complex use of bioethical, epidemiological, virological and socio-normative criteria that gave the opportunity to discover the ethical features and demonstrate the great value of ethical principals for the strategy of infectious diseases eradication. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):205-212
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REVIEW ARTICLES

MODERN LABORATORY APPROACHES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CMV INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

Padalko E.I.

Abstract

Abstract. High susceptibility of immunocomromised human to infection (especially transplant recipients) is influenced by poor ability to combat it due to impaired cellmediated immunity plus high vulnerability to perturbations in the environment. Special considerations regarding infection in transplant recipients and particular approaches in laboratory diagnostics are based on profound analysis of the nature of viral infection in this population. In this article the modern knowledge about viral infections and laboratory diagnostic methods, particularly regarding CMV infection, in immunocompromised patients are discussed. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):213-216
pages 213-216 views

MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF YERSINIA AS THE BASIS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVELLANCE OF YERSINIOSIS IN ORGANIZED GROUРS

Panin A.L., Kraeva L.A., Sboychakov V.B., Belov A.B., Bolekhan V.N., Vlasov D.Y., Tseneva G.Y.

Abstract

Abstract. Practical decision of infectology problem depends on the correct assessment of the main concepts of epidemiology and microbiology. The feasibility of attracting the attention of specialists in related disciplines to the problem of microbiological monitoring is discussed. In connection with the capabilities of highly sensitive molecular methods and mathematical modeling on the example of microbiological monitoring of Yersinia was made attempt to analyse mod- ern opportunities of bacteriology and to enter a predictive component as an important element of purposeful activity into monitoring definition. Yersiniosis are one of the most urgent infectious diseases. A variety of biological properties of Yersinia, their various epidemiological importance (Yersinia spp. enter into I, III and the IV groups of virulence), group incidence of Yersiniosis in the organized groups, mobility of genes of a virulence and change of pathogenic properties of Yersinia from strain to strain cause need of carrying out microbiological monitoring with a predictive component in new social and biological conditions. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):217-228
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES

THE CELLS WITH MYCOBACTERIA IN GRANULOMATOUS AGGREGATES FROM MICE WITH LATENT TUBERCULOUS INFECTION IN EX VIVO CULTURE

Ufimtseva E.G.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of this study was to obtain ex vivo monolayer culture cells migrated from individual granulomas isolated from the spleens of the Balb/c line mice through 1–2 months after BCG vaccine infection. The second goal was to evaluate influence of different types of cells in the development of granulomatic inflammation and analysis of BCG bacteria content in these cells in the latent stage of tuberculosis. Granulomas were presented by macrophages in general. The number of granulomas was varied as in one mouse as between mice. Granulomas contained also dendritic cells (in average 10% from macrophages of granulomas) and lymphocytes. In some granulomas fibroblasts, neutrophils, eosiniphils, multinuclear cells of Pirogov–Langhans, megacariocytes and platelets were observed in all stages of infection. The number of these cells was also varied between granulomas. The acid staining BCG bacteria were only detected in macrophages, dendritic cells and Pirogov–Langhans cells of mice granulomas. Mice were different as by number of cells with BCG bacteria in granulomas as by number of granulomas with BCG-containing cells. The proposed model of granuloma cells of mice in ex vivo culture can be used to study interaction between host cells and mycobacteria to find new ways and methods of influence to intracellular pathogens in latent stage of tuberculosis. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):229-234
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THE SEARCH OF OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF ANTIGENS FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS

Vasilyeva E.V., Verbov V.N., Beklemishev A.B., Mamaev A.L., Tsyrul’nikov A.O., Stepanenko T.A., Ivanovskii V.B., Lapin S.V., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The four chimeric recombinant antigens CBD-CFP10, CBD-ESAT6, ESAT6-CFP10 and CBD-P38 contained aminoacid sequences of full-size proteins ESAT6, CFP10 and matured protein P38 of M. tuberculosis, joined with aminoacid sequences of cellulose bind domain of endogluconase A (CBD) from Cellumonas fimi have been obtained by gene engineering methods. Recombinant proteins were purified by affine chromatography in column with Ni-NTA-sepharose 6В-CL and as PPDN-3 were used for detection of their antigenic activity in indirect ELISA for TB serological diagnostics. The sera from patients with lung tuberculosis (n = 321), from persons who had professional contacts with TB patients (n = 42), from healthy blood donors (n = 366) and from patients with lung diseases of non-TB etiology were tested. It was detected that there was positive correlation between antibodies level for all studied antigens compared by pair. It has been demonstrated that although antigens were different by antigenic and immunobiological characteristics they add each other in the content of antigenic diagnostics compositions. Thus, all these antigens can be used in the test kits for serological diagnostics of TB. Using of these antigens will allow to detect persons infected by TB and patients with active tuberculosis. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):235-242
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PECULIARITIES OF SPECIFIC HUMORAL MESLES IMMUNE RESPONSE

Toptygina A.P., Mamaeva T.A., Alioshkin V.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of study was to investigate peculiarities of specific immune responses in vaccinated and unvaccinated measles convalescents. Twelve infants with natural measles infection at 5–7th day after onset of rash (Group 1), 14 adults with natural measles infection at 5–7th day (Group 2), 13 adults with measles at 12–15th day after onset of rash (Group 3), and 15 measles patients previously vaccinated against measles (Group 4) were examined. Fifteen healthy adults had twodose measles vaccination at 1 year and 6 years old (Group 5), and 17 healthy adults had measles many years ago (Group 6) were included in the study as a control groups. Specific IgM, IgA, IgG antibodies in serum, and their subclasses and avidity were tested by ELISA. High level of specific IgM and IgA-antibodies, and increasing of low-avidity IgG-antibodies, predominantly IgG3 subclass were typical for the humoral immune response in unvaccinated patients. On the contrary, lower level of IgM and the highest level of specific IgA and high-avidity IgG, predominantly IgG1 subclass characterized the group of previously vaccinated measles patients. The humoral immune response in vaccinated volunteers was characterized by lower level of specific IgA, IgG and avidity than in adults had measles in their childhood (group 6). The laboratory plays a critical role in case classification when rash and fever develop in persons who have possibly been exposed to measles. Waning of measles antibody, however, does not necessarily equate to waning immunity, because B-memory cells responses can increase of the antibody synthesis. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):243-250
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THE FEATURES OF HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE FOR ANTIGENS OF OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN CASE OF PHARYNX TONSILS HYPERTROPHY IN INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Shabaldina E.V., Shabaldin A.V., Lisachenko G.V., Drozdova M.V., Riazantsev S.V., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

Abstract. Features of IgG and IgE immune response for opportunistic microbes of pharynx biotope in children with pharyngeal lymphoid hypertrophy and recurrent acute respiratory infections have been studied (base group). The ob tained data were compared with similar results for healthy children. It was shown that in children of base group in biotope of pharynx prevailed S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. mutans, P. vulgaris and C. albicans. It was demonstarted that in children of base group the IgG immune response was mainly induced by S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, B. catharrhalis and H. influenzae; and the IgE immune response — by S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus and H. influenzae. The role of polyclonal induction of immune response to S. pneumoniae in pathogenesis of pharyngeal lymphoid hypertrophy and recurrent acute respiratory infections in children of early and preschool age has been detected. 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):251-262
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THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF THE CYTOKINE STATUS AND THE SEVERITY OF INTOXICATION SYNDROME IN INFLUENZA

Voloschcuk L.V., Golovacheva E.G., Mushkatina A.L., Osidak L.V., Zarishnuk P.V., Go A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The goal of study was to evaluate cytokines level in blood of 60 patients with uncomplicated influenza and its relations with severity of intoxication symptoms. High level of TNFα, IL-10, IL-1Rа and low level of IFNγ was measured in serum of patients with severe intoxication syndrome during acute phase of disease. The duration of intoxication syndrome of influenza had a direct correlation with the concentration of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1Rа, IL-10 and the opposite of IL-1β.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):263-268
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

FUNCTIONAL AND METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHILIC GRANULOCYTES IN CASE OF ACUTE BACTERIAL RHINOSINUSITIS

Kolenchukova O.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The functional and metabolic activities of neutrophilic granulocytes in patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) have been studied. Characteristics of the indices of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence for neutrophils, extracted from venous blood and maxillary sinus were compared. It was demonstrated the decrease of intensity of APK production in neutrophils, extracted from inflammation point, with simultaneous decrease of intensity of plastic processes and increasing of energy processes in compare with the same indices in blood cells.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):269-274
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THE FEATURES OF BLOOD IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS FORMS OF BRUCELLOSIS

Logvinenko O.V., Rakitinа C.L., Ponomarenko D.G., Kostychenko M.V., Sarkisian N.S., Berdnikova T.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Results of current study have shown that acute brucellosis is characterized by increase of T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and decrease of phagocytic activity of neutrophyls in the blood. In patients with chronic form of disease the decline of T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes together with activation of humoral immunity and increasing of B-lymphocytes and levels of immunoglobulins A and G have been observed. Thus, revealed changes indicating the formation of secondary immunodeficiency in chronic disease course. Results of the study confirmed the needs for a permanent immunological monitoring of patients with brucellosis as well as conducting a comprehensive immunological testing of patients to develop the individual scheme of corrective therapy.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):275-278
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CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM LEVELS OF CYTOKINES AND TOTAL IgE IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGE WITH SALMONELLOSIS

Zheleznikova G.F., Bechtereva M.K., Volohova O.A., Monahova N.E.

Abstract

Abstract. The serum levels of cytokines and total IgE in 113 children with salmonellosis were tested in ELISA. It was established, that severe course of infection in chidren up to 4 years of age is associated with low level of IL-10, and after 4 years of age with IFNγ deficit. Low level of total IgE is the marker of severe salmonellosis too, particularly in children up to 4 years of age.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):279-284
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SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF MODERN CHOLERA USING LIPOSOMAL ENTEROTOXIC DIAGNOSTICUM IN COMPLEMENT FIXATION TEST

Savelyeva I.V., Bezsmertnyj V.E., Savelyev V.N., Fedorov Y.M., Ivanova C.M., Ivannikov V.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The possibility of serological diagnosis of cholera using cholera enterotoxic diagnostics kit in complement fixation test to detect anti-enterotoxic antibodies in sera of patients with cholera caused by hybrid variants of the El Tor biovar has been demonstrated. In patients with mild course of cholera anti-enterotoxic antibodies were detected in titres 1:50 and 1:200 in paired sera obtained on the 7th and 14th days of disease, respectively (fourfold titre increase). In patients with the course of medium severity 32-fold titre increase was recorded from the titre 1:100 in serum obtained on the fifth day of disease till the titre 1:3200 — on the twelfth day of disease. Antibodies titers reached 1:1600 and 1:800 were revealed in two medium course patients (adult and infant of 10 months) on the sixth day of disease.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(3):285-288
pages 285-288 views

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