Vol 1, No 3 (2011)

LECTURES

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY IN INFECTIONS (REVISION OF CLASSIC DOGMA)

Freidlin I.S.

Abstract

Abstract. The mechanisms of the immune system responding to an infection depend on a complex interrelation between the elements of innate and adaptive immunity. The current understanding of how signaling from innate immunity receptors shapes the adaptive immune response against pathogens and how it looks like the adaptive control of innate immunity are discussed in the article. One of the main problem needed to be highlighted is if adaptive immune cells suppress or activate innate immunity? Several studies yield new light to the question how the adaptive immunity can compensate, suppress and activate innate immunity. The role of inflammatory signals of dendritic cells activation in induction and modulation of adaptive immunity is described. Innate immunity receptors instruct the adaptive immune system on when and how to best respond to a concrete infection.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):199-206
pages 199-206 views

ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VACCINATION. Part 2. Ethical aspects of planning and conducting of research in the field of vaccine prevention

Kubar O.I., Asatrian A.G.

Abstract

Abstract. The current article continuing the presentation of data on ethical, legal and social aspects of problems connected with the studies for prevention of infectious diseases. In the frame of this article the international conception of research in the vaccine prevention field has been presented. The legal component of ethical principles during conducting studies of immunobiological preparations in the Russian Federation has been demonstrated.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):207-210
pages 207-210 views

REVIEW ARTICLES

SOME FEATURES OF GENOME STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

Mokrousov I.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes both human pathogens (M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and M. canettii), rodent paghogens (M. microti), as well as Mycobacterium bovis with wide range of hosts and related M. caprae and M. pinnipedii. In spite of phenotypic and host differences these species present a highly homogeneous genospecies with 99.7–99.9% of genome homology and extremely low level of horizontal gene transfer. Recent genetic research in the last decade permitted to revisit and revise old and new dogmas about genome and evolution of M. tuberculosis. In particular, a classical theory about bovine origin of human tuberculosis during domestication process was rejected. It was demonstrated that genomes of the related species of M. tuberculosis complex evolved through large unidirectional deletions leading to origin of M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, M. bovis and other species (M. canettii, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, M. caprae) from the same progenitor species. Large deletions influence the pathogenic potential of different clonal lineages within M. tuberculosis. At the same time, genetic variation within the short time frames is achieved via changes in the repetitive DNA and transposition of the insertion sequences IS6110 across the genome. Furthermore, M. tuberculosis may adapt to the selective pressure of the host immune system and antituberculosis drugs via specific point mutations. In the last few years a higher level of SNP variation between closely related strains was demonstrated with opens new perspectives for full-genome and multilocus sequence typing of M. tuberculosis.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):211-220
pages 211-220 views

OPPORTUNITIES OF THE FLOW CYTOMETRY IN DIAGNOSTICS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Part 3

Khaidukov S.V., Zurochka A.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Development of modern clinical and infectious immunology, demands maximum objective tests for estimation of functional condition of various types phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Wide potential opportunities of flow cytometry have led to development of ways of registration of a functional condition of these cells, an estimation of processes of their activation and study of mechanisms formation of defects of their functions. For example: analysis of phagocytic and bactericidal activity of neutrophils and measurement number of the cells, which are taking place at various stages of programmed cellular death (apoptosis). Flow cytometry methods described in this review represent a new hi-tech direction for scientific and clinical researches.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):221-230
pages 221-230 views

THE RUBELLA VIRUS AND ITS TERATOGENIC ACTION. PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSTICS, PREVENTION OF CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME (CRS). Part 3. Diagnostics and prevention of CRS

Antipova A.J.

Abstract

Abstract. In the third part of the review different methods of diagnostics of postnatal and congenital rubella as well as surveillance tactics and infection control are discussed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):231-242
pages 231-242 views

THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF THE GENITOURINARY TRICHOMONIASIS

Makhlay N.S.

Abstract

Abstract. The laboratory diagnostics of trichomoniasis is strongly recommended for the diagnosis confirmation. The current review summarizes information concerning diagnostic methods directed to identification of this protozoa by morphology, to detection of antigens of T. vaginalis as well as specific antibodies and pathogen DNA. The existing problems in the interpretation of results and information about the efficacy of each method in the patient’s testing algorithm are discussed in the article.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):243-248
pages 243-248 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

THE DYNAMICS OF TITERS CHANGES OF SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULINS TO HBsAg IN SERUM AND YOLK OF QUAIL EGGS IN CASE OF USING OF DIFFERENT PREPARATION FOR IMMUNIZATION

Sboychakov V.B., Borisenko S.V., Sokurova A.M.

Abstract

Abstract. The special study to find a more cost-effective source of immunodiagnostic products was conducted. Determination of titers of specific immunoglobulins to HBsAg in serum and egg yolk of quail using different preparation for immunization showed that the most effective mode is immunization of quail by the HBsAg adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide and injected into reverse emulsion «water–oil».

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):249-254
pages 249-254 views

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 1999–2009

Mukomolov S.L., Levakova I.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The information concerning incidence, prevalence and morbidity of chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) in the territories of the Russian Federation for the period 1999–2009 is presented in the analytical review. The special attention is paid to multiyear dynamics of CVH registration, to diseases distribution by the Federal areas and separate territories as well as to CVH incidence in different age groups.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):255-262
pages 255-262 views

THE STUDY OF ENTEROTOXIGENICITY OF THE BIOTYPE 1A YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA

Bogumilchik E.A., Voskresenskaya E.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А which are considered as nonpathogenic microorganisms were tested for production of the thermostable enterotoxin YST B (Yersinia Stable Toxin). This toxin is characterized by strong toxic action and it can bring on diarrhea in human and animals. The chromosome gene of thermostable enterotoxin ystB was detected by PCR in 87.1% out of 116 studied strains of different origin and territorial isolation. To determine toxin production in vitro the studied strains cultivated in various conditions: in 26°C and 37°С in usual culture medium and in 37°С in the medium corresponded to the content of intestine. In part of the studied strains the toxin production was revealed on the model of newborn mice in both temperature regimes of cultivation 26°С and 37°С. The study of toxin production in representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А showed their possible role as etiological agents of diarrhea.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):263-266
pages 263-266 views

CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME: APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY

Kalinina N.M.

Abstract

Abstract. The data on clinical symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) as well as some immunopathogenesis mechanisms of this disease are discussed in the article. Moreover, own research results on immunological changes in CFS patients have been described.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):267-270
pages 267-270 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

ProMMP-1 PRODUCTION BY CULTIVATED CELLS OF VASCULAR ENDОTHELIUM IN VITRO AND IN A HUMAN BODY

Scliankina N.N., Boldyreva N.V., Babayants A.A., Frolova I.S., Belyaev D.L., Portnova Y.A., Scheglovitova O.N.

Abstract

Abstract. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are structurally related endopeptidase composed of active sites which include ions Zn2+ and Ca2+. Cultured cells of human blood vessels produce MMP-1, proteolytic effect is aimed at splitting the collagen I and III types, and subsequent vascular remodeling. MMP-1 is synthesized as an inactive zymogen proMMP-1. It was shown that interferon alpha, beta and gamma inhibited production by culture of HUVEC proenzyme MMP-1, which seems to characterize their anti-angiogenic action. The effect of immunomodulators is more difficult to explain: perhaps inhibiting effect of imunofan and, as well as activating effect of cycloferon due to their internal structural peculiarities. The action of interferon alpha, beta and gamma, used as HUVEC before infection with HSV-1, and after it led to decrease in production proMMP-1. Apparently, the antiangiogenic effect of IFN is saved in the case of infection of cultures of vascular endothelium with HSV-1. Scatter in the content of proMMP-1 in the serum of blood donors was 1.625–11.8 ng/ml and in patients with chronic microbial-viral infections was 1.22–21.16 ng/ml. Higher rates of proMMP-1 were in older patients group. To estimate the system of MMP in vitro, and in the body a comprehensive study must be conducted, including proMMP-1, the active form of proenzyme and specific inhibitor of MMP-1.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):271-274
pages 271-274 views

THE EVALUATION OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF THE POLYSACCHARIDE PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE DURING THE IMMUNIZATION OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS

Feldblum I.V., Golodnova S.O., Semerikov V.V., Nikolenko V.V., Metelkina N.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The article presents results of a prospective randomized study of reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine “Pneumo 23” in the group of medical workers. The vaccine was characterized by the high profile of safety (absence of clinical symptoms of allergy, changes in blood and urine), low reactogenicity and sufficient immunogenicity.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):275-278
pages 275-278 views

THE PREVALENCE OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN SAINT-PETERSBURG

Kulyashova L.B., Berezina L.A., Zakrevskaya A.V., Zhebrun A.B., Mayatskaya M.V., Makovskaya O.A.

Abstract

Abstract. Chlamydia trachomatis causes various diseases of reproductive organs. Only limited data on the incidence of urogenital chlamydia infection in the Russian Federation are available. The main goal of this study was to detect the prevalence of infection associated with Chlamydia trachomatis in citizens of St.Petersburg. Overall 3833 individuals including 2190 children and adolescents aged from 0 to 18 years old and 1643 adults aged 19–70 years old were tested in 2008–2010. This group included patients with acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility as well as patients without clinical symptoms of Chlamydia infection. The high level of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among newborns and dramatic increase of the infection among adolescents were determined. These results support urgent needs to develop adequate preventive measures to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the population. The effectiveness of different laboratory tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection depends on the causative agent localization in the macroorganism, on acuity of infection process and on immune response. The combined using of different laboratory tests give the possibility to obtain objective results about Chlamydia etiology role in inflammatory disease of urogenital tract as well as about prevalence of infection in regions of the country.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):279-283
pages 279-283 views

CHRONICLE

Editorial

Abstract

НИИ клинической иммунологии СО РАМН — 30 лет.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(3):284
pages 284 views

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