Vol 2, No 4 (2012)

REVIEW ARTICLES

GENOME ORGANIZATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NATURAL INTERGENOTYPIC RECOMBINANT OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS RF1_2k/1b

Kalinina O.V.

Abstract

Abstract. For many years, the viral hepatitis C is considered as one of the most actual infectious pathologies of human. During the last decade the number of registered cases of chronic viral hepatitis C in Russia increased two times and reached 40.9‰. According to the current virological classification, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is differentiated into 6 genotypes and more than 200 subtypes. At the same time, increasing number of publications report about novel genetic variants of HCV. A high mutation rate is considered to be a major factor behind HCV genetic diversity. Recombination as another mechanism for creating genetic variation was not recognized as important factor for generating the HCV diversity. For a long time it was believed that the natural recombinants of hepatitis C virus were not viable. The first inter-genotype HCV recombinant RF1_2k/1b was identified in 2002 in Saint-Petersburg. The structural genes of the recombinant strain were similar to those of the HCV subtype 2k, while its nonstructural genes (except for the part of the NS2 gene) belonged to the HCV subtype 1b. Since that time, many studies were initiated to indentify natural HCV recombinants. This review presents current data regarding the genomic organization of HCV and its natural inter-genotype recombinant RF1_2k/1b as well as information about circulation of this recombinant in the world.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):677-686
pages 677-686 views

THE ROLE OF CYTOKINE GENES POLYMORPHISM IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

Arsentieva N.A., Semenov A.V., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection depends on the immune response caused by the host genetic factors. Cytokines are key mediators of inflammation and development of specific immunity, which is responsible for the elimination of HCV. It has been found that the polymorphisms in several cytokine genes play role in human susceptibility to HCV infection, determine its differences in response to HCV and treatment-induced HCV clearance. This review summarizes the results of studies on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes that complete our knowledge of the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):687-698
pages 687-698 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

THE IMPORTANCE OF PATHOGENICITY FACTORS OF OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THEIR ROLE IN DISEASE DEVELOPMENT

Kunilova E.S., Kraeva L.A., Tseneva G.Y., Hamdulayeva G.N.

Abstract

Absract. The following pathogenicity factors of microorganisms prevailed in case of acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract were studied: adhesive characteristics, hemolytic, hemagglutination, neuraminidase activities. It was established that microorganisms of the Moraxella genius have strongest adhesive characteristic. The high hemolytic and hemagglutination activity is inherent in microorganisms of the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genius. In the case of isolation from patients microbial associations the clinical symptoms and pathogenicity factors of microbes-associates were more apparent.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):699-704
pages 699-704 views

ROLE OF PREEXISTING VIRUS-SPECIFIC IgG IN PRIMARY DISEASE AND IN REINFECTION WITH RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS

Krivitskaya V.Z., Voitsehovskaya E.M., Suhovetskaya V.F., Golovachova E.G., Lvov N.I., Sominina A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of the study is evaluation of links between presence in blood of specific pre-existing IgG to respiratory-syncytial virus (RSV), clinical course of RSV infection and character specific to RSV humoral immune response in patients of different ages. The antibodies were detected by ELISA using whole RS virus or synthetic peptides corresponded to the selected determinants of the envelope RSV proteins. It was shown that RS specific maternal IgG antibodies passively transferred to babies in utero can circulate in the blood up to 10 months of life. The analysis of paired sera of 45 babies in the age of 1–10 months revealed firstly that presence of maternal IgG specific antibodies to the conservative B-cell immunogenic determinants of the F-protein (amino acids 221–232) and/or the G-protein (amino acids 152–164 and 184–198) is coupled with more high morbidity of primary RSV infection (89% versus 56%, p = 0.023), and also with more high frequency of complicated by bronchus obstruction course of the disease (81% versus 20%, р = 0.001) in compare with babies who were serologically negative to the maternal determinants specific antibodies. The correlation analysis has shown that the high presence of maternal determinant-specific IgG in the blood in babies till 10 months of life is associated in the case of primary infection with disbalance of humoral anti-viral immune response: intensive synthesis of serum RSV IgA. This is evidence of complicated course of infection with simultaneous suppression of response to RSV specific IgG. As opposed to the primary RSV infection in patients older than 3 years (n = 121) it was not detected links between anamnestic determinant-specific IgG synthesized by own immune system as the results of previous disease episodes and synthesis of anti-RSV IgG, IgM, IgE and IgA in RSV re-infections. In the contrast to babies in more older patients the feedback connection between level of pre-existing determinant-specific “memory IgG” and diagnostics of RSV infection has been established.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):705-714
pages 705-714 views

PATTERNS OF REGULATORY T-CELLS AND NK-CELLS LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

Selkova M.S., Selutin A.V., Selkov S.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The clinical course of hepatitis C virus infection partially depends on the patient’s immune system status. It was shown that balance between levels of regulatory T-cells and activated NK-cells changed depending on viral load and virus genotype. Patients with high viral load demonstrated shift of this balance toward regulatory T-cells increasing.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):715-722
pages 715-722 views

NEW ASPECTS OF ASSESSMENT THE ACTIVITY OF BLOOD PHAGOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

Skornyakov S.N., Medvinsky I.D., Berdyugina O.V., Ershova A.V., Pavlov V.A., Sabadash E.V., Tuzankina I.A., Berdyugin K.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The phagocytosis is the key mechanism of organism protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study is to assess the phagocytal activity of cells in lung tuberculosis by the flowing cytofluorometric method. Overall 39 patients were examined including 14 patients with infiltrative lung tuberculosis, 15 patients with tuberculoma, 10 healthy persons. The patient testing was provided by the machine COULTER®Epics®XL, reagents Phagotest® (Orpegen Pharma), BurstTestKit (Glycotope Biotechnology) and monoclonal antibodies to detect subpopulation of lymphocytes. All obtained data were statistically processed by the software STATISTICА. It was established that the assessment of phagocytal activity of cells is the important criteria of detection of tuberculosis activity in the early stages of observation as well as during the treatment. The flowing cytometria allows rapidly, accurately and objectively assess the phagocytal cells of blood. It was determined that markers of early activation of cells could reflect the activity of pathological process and it can be used for prognosis of clinical course of lung tuberculosis.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):723-728
pages 723-728 views

MODERN APPROACHES IN COMPLEX LABORATORY TESTING FOR DIPHTHERIA

Kraeva L.A., Alekseeva E.A., Tseneva G.Y., Lipatova L.A., Bespalova G.I.

Abstract

Abstract. The criteria of reliable validation of population protection against diphtheria on the base of two indices including quantity of antitoxic antibodies to diphtheria and avidity index have been established. For this purposes it was proposed to use the modified variant of ELISA allowed to detect both indices simultaneously. The formula of probable development of diphtheria in case of the close contact with patients or Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria carriers as well as determination of revaccination time have been proposed. The authors developed “The algorithm of population immunity control and assessment of non-susceptibility to diphtheria” and “The algorithm of micro biological testing of clinical samples for C. diphtheriae”.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):729-734
pages 729-734 views

EXPRESS-DIAGNOSTIC OF RUBELLA INFECTION BY THE IMMUNOFLUORESCENT ASSAY USING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO PROTEIN E1 OF RUBELLA VIRUS

Lisakov A.N., Nagieva F.G., Barkova E.P., Niculina V.G., Uminova N.V., Antonova T.P., Fedotov A.U.

Abstract

Abstract. The high rubella incidence rate in the Russian Federation and the low registration level of the rubella congenital syndrome which is not reflect the epidemic situation requiring optimization of the rubella diagnostics. In the present study the possibility of early detection of rubella virus in case of inoculation of sensitive cell culture by the nasopharyngeal washouts with following detection of rubella antigen with highly specific monoclonal antibodies to the basic structural protein E1 of rubella virus using direct immunofluorescent method have been shown. Using of the rapid cell cultural method allows providing etiological diagnosis of high specificity within 5 hours after inoculation of virus to the sensitive cells Vero E6 or BHK-21-F.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):735-740
pages 735-740 views

STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION PREVALENCE IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF ST. PETERSBURG POPULATION IN 2007-2011

Svarval A.V., Ferman R.S., Zhebrun A.B.

Abstract

Abstract. Presence of specific antibodies to H. pylori and to its Cag A toxin was studied in 1917 persons, including 860 children and 1057 adults, in Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, St. Petersburg, Russia. The studied group was presented by the subjectively healthy individuals and blood donors living in St. Petersburg. The growth and stabilization of serological positive rates to H. pilory at high level, as well as increasing the proportion of CagA-positive infection among children and adults in St. Petersburg in 2007–2011 have been established. There are 3 age risk groups of H. pylori infection among children population: 4–5 years, 7–8 years and 14–15 years. The shift of the maximum H. pylori seropositivity rates from age group of 30–39 years in 2007 to age group 40–49 years in 2011 was detected.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):741-746
pages 741-746 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

THE SEASONAL INCREASE OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN THE NOVGOROD OBLAST

Bichurina M.A., Pianykh V.A., Novikova N.A., Leonova N.P., Klevtsova G.A., Romanenkova N.I., Ivanova T.G., Golitsina L.N., Fomina L.B., Rozaeva N.R., Tseits O.E., Lukovnikova L.B., Kanaeva O.I., Epifanova N.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The analysis of epidemic process and definition of the etiology of the seasonal increase of serosal meningitis incidence in the Novgorod oblast in September-November, 2008 has been carried out. It was shown that in the specified period 73 persons had enteroviral meningitis. The proportion of children under 17 years old in the group of patients was 89.9%. The etiological agents of disease (enteroviruses ECHO 6 и ECHO 30) were detected by the virological and molecular-biological methods. It was established that two genetic variants of ECHO 6 and one variant of ECHO 30 co-circulated in the Novgorod oblast. The last virus variant was closely related to the strain isolated from enteroviral meningitis patients in Nizhniy Novgorod in 2007. The obtained data support the idea about necessity of systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance on enteroviral infection to get new information about circulation of non-poliomyelitis enteroviruses in the population and to define peculiarities of epidemic process development.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):747-752
pages 747-752 views

THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

Lyalina L.V., Terentyeva J.V., Bichurina M.A., Antipova A.U.

Abstract

Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West) Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):753-756
pages 753-756 views

FOR THE PRACTICAL PHYSICIANS

WHERE INFECTIOUS PATIENTS SHOULD BE TREATED?

Zhdanov K.V., Sboichakov V.B., Zakharenko S.M., Finogeev J.P., Krumgolts V.F., Yaremenko M.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The numerous guidelines to improve medical care of infectious patients in hospitals and in home conditions have been developed due to importance of this issue. The growing complexity of work, the needs to improve the quality of treatment and diagnostic measures in the pre-hospital stage led to the creation of special consulting service for infectious diseases patients. This article is based on the existing orders, instructions and rules for tactics of local doctors in identifying of patients with infectious disease. Following to the orders of the Ministry of Health, to requirements for the organization of infectious diseases units is obligatory as perform the State standards.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(4):757-764
pages 757-764 views

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