Vol 6, No 2 (2016)



Puzyryova L.V., Safonov A.D.


The molecular genetics opens the new horizons in modern medicine, especially now when many diseases are given huge value in a type of their prevalence among various groups of population. Extremely high interleukin genes polymorphism degrees are studied well especially genetic polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor. Patients with HIV infection in the territory of Russia cause now the highest degree of mortality that is the most actual and socially significant problem of healthcare. This problems studying attracts many researchers. Works in respect of genetic immunity to a virus and influence of cytokines production on the disease forecast are especially interesting. One of the HIV replication influencing factors are cytokines, some of which, including the tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 can promote replication of HIV, raising an expression of virus regulatory genes. During disease progress in parallel of anti-inflammatory cytokines level increase (causing in this case rather ineffective antibodies level increase) there is an T-helpers suppression stimulating a strong cellular component. Cytokine network functioning during HIV infection depends on many reasons which the individual variation in cytokine production caused by a number of genetic features, as well as an existence of opportunistic infection. Cytokines polymorphism determination in HIV infected patients is necessary in clinical practice for disease progression forecast to adverse fast transition to AIDS that it is important to consider in a choice of tactics of the supporting therapy of HIV-positive patients. Considering insufficient efficiency of modern methods of treatment, restoration and modulation of cytokines balance will increase anti-virus activity of immune system, influencing the factors blocking replication of a HIV.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):103-108
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Korovkina E.S., Kazharova S.V.


The inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases are relevant public health problem. The general characteristics of this diseases group are significant proportion of patients that does not react properly on ongoing antibiotic therapy. The reason may be various disorders of the immune system. It is known that the development of immune response to pathogen involves a complex interaction of cells and molecules of innate and adaptive immune systems. Currently dendritic cells are considered as a connecting link between innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptors function and expression are intensively investigated in norm and in pathology last decade, which are the most important members of the family of signaling receptors and play an important role in the activation of mechanisms of innate immunity. Infection is one of the major factors that influence in the expression of the toll-like receptors. The level of expression directly correlates with the severity of the process. In some cases toll-like receptors allows as early markers of infection. Consider the role of the toll-like receptors in the development of normal immune response, coudn’t exclude the various defects in signal transmission systems and in the receptors structure in patients with inflammatory diseases. That is why defining the role of toll-like receptors in various diseases is advisable and in the future will allow to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. Nowadays have not generally accepted effective methods of the inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases immunocorrection, there also remains the problem of prevention and therapy. In particular, discuss the use of immunomodulators, so called “therapeutic vaccines” that have the ability to stimulate the antigen-specific response.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):109-116
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Esmagambetov I.B., Alekseeva S.V., Sayadyan K.S., Shmarov M.M.


Influenza is a seasonal infectious disease widespread across the globe. In Russia the share of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections account for up to 90% of all infectious diseases. Scientific and reasonable method of influenza prevention is vaccination. However, traditional current influenza vaccines can’t induce protection against various virus strains that differ substantially in terms of their antigenic structure, and thus require periodic updates to its immunogenic components. In addition, there is the risk of a pandemic caused by an entirely new antigen in relation to variants of influenza virus A. Attempts to improve on traditional approaches to vaccination have focused primarily on improving production technologies and to increase immunogenicity of vaccines. Therefore, the urgent task is the creation of vaccines able to induce immune response a broad spectrum against different influenza virus strains and human strains of avian influenza, also can cause disease in humans. Protective effect of universal vaccine should be the induction of integrated immune response, based on the formulation of cross-reactive antibodies and T cells. The development of such universal vaccine could remove the need for periodical strain composition update of existing vaccines and, accor dingly, will be able to give the vaccine manufacturer itself, production planning regardless of epidemic seasons. Currently, the most widely studied antigens as key components of flu vaccines are proteins M2 and NP as well as the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. This review summarizes and lists some data of domestic and foreign research on a universal influenza virus vaccine.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):117-132
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Yablonskii P.K., Vishnevskiy B.I., Solovyeva N.S., Manicheva O.A., Dogonadze M.Z., Melnikova N.N., Zhuravlev V.Y.


The long-term Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance monitoring data were obtained in St. Petersburg Research Institute Phthisiopulmonology for four periods of observation (I — 1984–1988 years, start period; II — 1996–2000 years, the period of acute epidemic situation and the sharp rise in drug resistance; III — 2007–2011 years, the period of relative stabilization; IV — 2012–2014 years, the final period). Totally 2267 strains from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, treated previously and with chronic process, and 691 strains from patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis were studied. Researches of drug resistance were made by indirect method of absolute concentrations in the medium Lowenstein–Jensen and in the automated system ВАСТЕС™ MGIT™ 960 (Becton Dickinson, USA). It shows a steady increase of the overall drug resistance, which has reached in the last three years 90.1% in pulmonary tuberculosis. At the same time there was a sharp worsening of the structure of drug resistance due to the growth of multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR), which by 2014 accounted for 81.9 vs 28.5% in 1984–1988. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis the growth of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to outpace: overall drug resistance increased from 39.4% (1984–1988) to 80.2% (2012–2014), reaching figures that are comparable to those of pulmonary tuberculosis. At the same time there was an even more rapid change for the worse of its structure due to the increase of MDR/XDR strains: from 10.5% in the first period to 69.5% in the fourth. This is due to the more frequency of existing in locus of extrapulmonary tuberculosis of highly adaptive multiresistant strains of genotype Beijing: in tuberculous spondylitis, which is the most severe and frequent form of osteoarticular tuberculosis, 70 of the 78 (89.7%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with MDR/XDR belong to this genotype. In pulmonary tuberculosis the XDR growth rate exceed those in extrapulmonary tuberculosis: from 26.8% (III period) to 39.5% (IV period) and, accordingly, from 8.0 to 8.6%. The situation with drug resistance in all localizations of the disease may be characterized as extremely tense, which can lead to unpredictable consequences, if promptly one not take appropriate measures.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):133-140
pages 133-140 views


Semenov A.V., Ostankova Y.V., Nogoybaeva K.A., Kasymbekova K.T., Lavrentieva I.N., Tobokalova S.T., Totolian A.A.


One of the most serious health problems in the world are hepatotropic viruses that cause chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B virus is distributed globally; around 5% of the carriers are also infected with hepatitis delta virus. Co-infection or superinfection of hepatitis viruses B and D significantly associated with a much more severe liver disease, compared with infection only hepatitis B virus. However, examination of hepatitis virus B carriers for the presence of hepatitis D virus in most regions of the world is not mandatory. It should be noted that the complete genotype mapping of viruses hepatitis B and D isolated on the territory of the CIS and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there is not yet, despite the constantly ongoing works devoted genotyping hepatotropic virus in the territory of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries. Due to the fact that one of the prospective ways of spreading viruses is the “labor migration” the inhabitants of Central Asia in other countries, including the Russian Federation, there is a need to pay attention to the situation of viral hepatitis in the region. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of genetic variants and characteristics of molecular epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis co-infection B + D in Kyrgyzstan. The study involved 30 plasma samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and D from different regions of Kyrgyzstan. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates showed that among patients examined HBV identified only D genotype. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicated that among the examined patients with chronic viral hepatitis B revealed only genotype D. It is shown prevalence of HBV subtype D1 (73.34%) compared to the HBV subtype D2 (3.33%) and D3 (23.33%). Revealed HDV genotype I with highly variable region of the gene encoding the delta antigen. The high similarity of some isolates with strains specific to neighboring countries endemic for hepatotropic viruses, as well as a dense clustering of other isolates may be an indication of numerous independent drifts of strains into the territory of the country. Also it can talk about the speed of evolution of the virus in a geographically isolated region as Kyrgyzstan. Identification of the propagation characteristics and endemics role in circulation of genotype of hepatitis B and D is great importance.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):141-150
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Boiro M.Y., Boumbali S., Konstantinov O.K., Kalivogui S., Koulibali M., Bah A.S.


Malaria in the Republic of Guinea is the main cause of morbidity and lethality. It takes the first place in number of all visits in medical service (30–40%) and is the main cause of hospital death. One records annually more than 8 millions malaria cases, and about 60 000 children deaths. Results of study of immune response changing on different disease phases in treatment of autochthon population and immune status of Europeans are presented. It was shown that immunity status (cellular and humoral) in population of Guinea (an endemic country on falciparum malaria) differs from one in Europeans living in tropics. During light forms of malaria one records an increase of T-lymphocyte and IgG number, whereas in grave cases one observed the acute decrease of these indices. The essential increase of B-lymphocyte number does not depends from gravity of disease and from malaria treatment. It was established that appearance of LSA1-41 antibodies was in a more degree in adult patients than in children. The positive correlation between IgM and IgG was established in adult patients as in children.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):151-156
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Kharchenko E.P.


Antibodies (Ab), especially natural, display multiple specificity not only due to intrinsic conformational dynamics. With computational analysis the distribution of identical and homologous peptides has been studied in surface proteins from RNA and DNA viruses of widely distributed infections. It was established that each virus protein shared the fragments homologous to other virus proteins that allowed to propose the existence of the peptide continuum of the protein relationship (PCPR). Possible manifestations of PCPR are multiple reactivity and autoreactivity in Ab and therefore it is not possible to consider the immune methods of virus identification as high reliable because of crossing interactions. The PCPR excludes the existence of 100% specificity in immune tests for virus identification. Immunodiagnostic collisions may occur either in identification of virus itself or identification of Ab to viruses. Also PCPR may be responsible for heterologous immunity and consequently the infection associated with severe pathology. The comparative analysis of peptide relationship of H1N1 influenza virus nucleoprotein and human proteins found out, beyond early described its common motif with human hypocretin receptor 2, peptides homologous to those in melanotonin and glutamate receptors and three ion channels. It allows to propose that the sleep disorder narcolepsy associated with Pandemrix vaccination (an adjuvanted, influenza pandemic vaccine) and also with infection by influenza virus during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic may be determined not only by Ab to the peptide motif common to influenza nucleoprotein and hypocretin receptor but also Ab to melanotonin and glutamate receptors and ion channels. Decreasing and even avoiding risks of complications from vaccination may be feasible by means of a computer analysis of vaccine proteins for the occurrence of epitopes homologous to the human protein those and particularly by an analysis of Ab profiles induced by vaccine using microarrays with the large number of human protein antigens.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):157-164
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Shaduro D.V., Beloglazov V.A., Gordienko A.I.


Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) — severe autoimmune disease that has a high level of morbidity and mortality. With each decade the SLE incidence rate grows up. Current researches do not allow to identify the etiology of this disease. The polyclonal stimulation of T and B lymphocytes processes are prevailed in pathogenetic picture of the disease. One of the most powerful triggers of stimulation may be a gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin (ET). The impact activity is regulated by a specific humoral and cellular antiendotoxin immune response.

Materials and methods. The study group involved 48 patients with SLE, the control group consisted of 40 healthy donors. The material of the study was the venous blood. The following indicators have been identified: the levels of specific anti-endotoxin antibodies (antiLPS IgA, IgM and IgG), by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); concentration of total immunoglobulins IgA, IgM and IgG — microturbidimethric method; the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) — ELISA; endogenous intoxication (EI) — a method of determining the average molecular weight for the absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum; circulating immune complexes (CIC) — the method of precipitation in polyethylene glycol. Statistical processing was performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and MedStat®.

Results. The study showed a statistically significant increase in anti-LPSIgG SLE patients by 2.5 times compared with the control group. A slight increase in total IgG by 5%. Endogenous intoxication index in SLE patients was higher by 13.9%, CIC by 150%. The level of CRP in the study group was 6.8 times higher compared with the control. There were also identified the inverse correlation between anti-LPS-IgG and CRP, the inverse correlation between anti-LPS-IgG and EI, direct correlation between anti-LPS-IgA and the age of patients.

Discussion. These results indicate the presence of dysfunction in the antiendotoxin immune response (AEIR) in SLE patients, namely increasing concentrations of specific anti-LPS-Ig. Identified growth of indicators of systemic inflammation correlated with indicators of AEIR, that confirms their mutual influence, which contributes to the lesion of organ-targets and can aggravate the manifestation and course of SLE. Normalization of AEIR, elimination of LPS may be a new way of treatment for SLE patients

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):165-172
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Volkov S.A., Bessolytsina E.A., Stolbova F.A., Darmov I.V.


Borreliosis, encephalitis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis belongs to tick-borne transmissive diseases. These diseases are dangerous for human and animals as well. Moreover, some animals can have no clinical signs of these diseases. These diseases are widely spread across Russian Federation, although only encephalitis and borreliosis (Lyme disease) are being monitored nowadays. At the same time anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis (pyroplasmosis) are not being monitored. Thus a goal of monitoring of these diseases appears. The main vector for these diseases are ticks. Ticks can carry and transmit causative agents of the diseases to domestic and wild animals. Thus a goal of monitoring transmissible diseases in different population of ticks gathered in our country appears. In this study PCR was chose. This method is perspective and is widely used to detect infectious diseases nowadays. Moreover this method allows getting results in quite short period of time. The goal of this work is to determine the presence of causative agents of tick-borne diseases in ticks of different species gathered in different areas of Kirov region in 2010–2015 with the help of PCR. Moreover the goal was to determine if there is a relation between a number of infected ticks and its species. To solve these goal a primers, PCR conditions, method of extraction of total nucleic acid from fixed and alive ticks were engineered. Method of extraction of total nucleic acids allowed with the help of a reverse transcriptase to determine tick-borne encephalitis virus in samples. Analyzed ticks were gathered in Kirov region. It was determined that main vectors in these region are of an Ixodes persulcatus and a Dermacentor reticulatus species. It was prooved that the number of infected ticks can vary in time. It was also proved that there is no significant difference in the number of infected with TBEV and Lyme disease causative agents but there is a significant difference in the number of infected ticks with anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis causative agents.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):173-178
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Vasilieva N.R., Vyazovaya A.A., Zhuravlev V.Y., Solovieva N.S., Mokrousov I.V., Narvskaya O.V.


Here, we present clinical and epidemiological analysis of 85 Russian cases of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by an extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. As defined by spoligotyping, M. tuberculosis strains belonged to the following genetic families: Beijing — 81.2%, which significantly exceeds the prevalence rate of this genotype (50%) in M. tuberculosis population across Russia; LAM — 14.1% and Ural — 4.7%. Among patients infected with Beijing strains prevailed alcohol and tobacco abused males; the main source of infection were family and penitentiary contacts. This group of patients has been characterized by a variety of clinical forms of lung disease with the prevalence of fibro-cavernous tuberculosis and a significant proportion of patients with interrupted treatment. Regardless of the M. tuberculosis strain genotype, the extensively drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis is characterized by severe course leading to the chronic disease with the relapses and poor response to anti-tuberculosis treatment, requiring repeated hospitalizations and surgical treatments.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):179-183
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Ishrefova L.R., Lyalina L.V., Lioznov D.A., Matochkina O.V., Davydova T.Y., Zakharova L.E.


Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and influenza are among the topical problems of healthcare. The children’s morbidity index in preschool educational institutions in Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg in 2008–2014 varied from 1359.6 to 1768.5 per 1000 children attending these institutions. In general educational schools the morbidity index in the aforesaid period were 422.6–521.6 (p < 0.001). From 49.3 to 55.4% of children were vaccinated against influenza; from 3600 to 4700 children annually stayed unimmunized due to medical contraindications and parents’ refusals from prophylactic immunization. The research objective is clinical-epidemiological substantiation of effectiveness of application of Echinacea botanical medicine to reduce the ARVI morbidity and the rate of complications after the disease among children attending educational institutions. As a result of the research it was established that the ARVI morbidity index in the group of the children who received the Echinacea preparation was 76.8; in the comparison group it was 94.2 per 100 people (p < 0.01; RR = 0.80; CI = 0.7–0.9). The rate of complications (bronchitis, otitis, adenoiditis, pneumonia, sinusitis) among the children who received the preparation was 2–4.8 times lower.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(2):184-188
pages 184-188 views

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