Vol 7, No 4 (2017)

REVIEW ARTICLES

PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ASCORBIC ACID AT INFLUENZA INFECTION

Zarubaev V.V., Slita A.V., Lavrentyeva I.N., Smirnov V.S.

Abstract

Abstract. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, AA) is an essential nutrient of the human diet due to its participation on numerous regulatory and enzymatic processes. AA takes part in such vital physiological processes as hormone production, collagen synthesis, stimulation of the immune system, etc. In the present review the activities of AA are considered that provide its protective effect at influenza infection. This effect can be result of direct virus-inhibiting activity of AA as well as of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress during influenza infection leads to nonspecific damage of the pulmonary tissue and subsequent inflammation of the lungs. The antioxidant activity of AA results in alleviation of infection due to suppression of tissue damage as well as in inhibition of reactive oxygen species-mediated signal transduction and regulatory reactions. After oxidation by ROS, AA is converted to dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) and inhibits the key enzymes of NF-κB pathway, such as kinases IKKα and IKKβ. AA itself blocks the activity of another component of the NF-kB pathway, kinase IKKβ(SS/EE), whose activity is directed to the phosphorylation of the factor IκBα. As a result, activation of NF-κB and its transport to the nucleus does not occur. Thus, AA performs a dual function: first, it neutralizes free radicals, preventing them from activating NF-κB, and secondly, the product of its oxidation, DAA, further blocks the activation of this pathway. In addition, in some cases AA results in the decrease in the infectious activity of influenza virus that is not due to the antioxidant activity of AA, but to direct virus-inhibiting activity. Taken together, the presented data suggests that the use of drugs with antiviral and antioxidant activity, as a combination of individual drugs or, as in the case of AA, as a single drug with complex activity, for treatment of influenza has advantages over the etiotropic drug monotherapy scheme.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):319-326
pages 319-326 views

METHODS OF ESTIMATION AND THE ROLE OF RESPIRATORY BURST IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASES

Savchenko A.A., Kudryavtsev I.V., Borisov A.G.

Abstract

According to the modern concepts the respiratory burst directly related to the processes of phagocytosis characterizes the functional activity of phagocytic cells. This review presents modern methods for assessing the respiratory burst state of phagocytes based on cytofluorometric and chemiluminescent analysis. The sequence and mechanisms of the reactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis in the process of respiratory cell burst are presented in detail. The sequence of synthesis from ROS with low bactericidal activity to ROS with high bactericidal activity is characterized. The review describes in detail the most popular dyes for cytofluorometric analysis to assess the levels of ROS synthesis. Characteristics and examples of the use of such dyes as dihydroethidine, dichlorodihydrofluorescein and dihydrorhodamine 123 are given. The main stages and mechanisms of the chemiluminescence reaction are presented. The features of the use of the main indicators (luminol and lucigenin) of the chemiluminescence reaction are described. A mechanism for estimating the parameters of the chemiluminescence reaction characterizing the features of the state and kinetics of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells is given. The separate section of the review is devoted to the role of a respiratory burst in phagocytic cells in various immunopathological states. Data on the pathogenetic significance of changes in the intensity and kinetics of respiratory burst of phagocytes in infectious, inflammatory and oncological diseases were presented. Examples of new methods for diagnosing and predicting the course of the immunopathological states characters are presented on the basis of an assessment of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The literature data show that at present, in the diagnosis and evaluation of the nature of the diseases characters the state of a respiratory burst is evaluated in various types of cells of innate immunity: neutrophils, monocytes, etc. It is concluded that the evaluation of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells can be characterized as the fundamental mechanisms of reacting cells of innate immunity to pathogenic and regulatory effects, so to develop new highly sensitive methods for diagnosing and predicting the development and outcome of various immunopathological conditions. The presented methods of flow cytometry and chemiluminescence analysis make it possible to determine both the integral state of the respiratory explosion, and the levels and kinetic parameters of the synthesis of individual ROS.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):327-340
pages 327-340 views

FEATURES OF THE MICROBIOME OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Shabaldin A.V., Shabaldina E.V., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

Studies of the metagenome of the upper respiratory tract in children showed the presence of five major bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Were revealed population differences in the distribution of weights of the above listed phyla, but subject to the dominance of the Firmicutes. Proved the role of environmental factors and time of year for representation in these biotopes of the phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Recurrent respiratory infections, hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring, secretory middle ear infections in children is associated with carriage of Haemophilus (H.) parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, Gemella (G.) haemolysans, G. morbillorum, G. sanguinis, Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. intermedius, S. agalactiae.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):341-349
pages 341-349 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT UNITS

Lyubimova A.V., Ryakhovskikh S.A., Shalyapina N.A., Brodina T.V., Averyanova M.Y., Aslanov B.I., Nechaev V.V.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiological features of bacterial infections in patients and circulation of epidemiologically significant microorganisms in the bone marrow transplant (BMT) units. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in three BMT departments. To identify the epidemiological features of bacterial infections, a prospective observational study was conducted from 01 April 2014 to 31 August 2014 (91 patients) which included active detection of cases of infection and microbiological examination of patients. In order to detect the circulation of epidemiologically significant microorganisms, point prevalence studies (59 patients, 170 environmental samples) were conducted. To study the role of colonization, microbiological monitoring of patients on admission to the department was carried out, and repeated every week before discharge. Swab samples from skin and mucous membrane of the oral cavity and stool sampleswere included in the monitoring. In total, 639 samples from 50 patients were tested. Results. The study revealed a high incidence of infectious complications in BMT patients (100 cases of bacterial infections in 57 patients: sepsis 30.8 per 100 patients, pneumonia 26.4 per 100 patients, urinary tract infections 32.9 per 100 patients, soft tissue infection 9.9 per 100 patients, catheter-associated bloodstream infection 9.9 per 100 patients). Most infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, in particular K. pneumoniae. The onset of disease manifestation was preceded by colonization of the patient with these microorganisms. Fatal outcomes were observed from sepsis and pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae and/or P. aeruginosa. Sepsis and pneumonia were often associated with cytopenia, RR 2.63 [95% CI 1.52–4.57] p = 0.004 and RR 3.97 [95% CI 2.19–7.19] p < 0.001 respectively. In course of observation, the frequency of colonization of patients with microorganisms susceptible to antibiotics decreased, and colonization with resistant pathogens increased. A series of prevalence studies revealed a constant circulation of VRE in the BMT units with a contacttransmission via household objects. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative microorganisms did not have a constant circulation and appeared sporadically against the background of the constant circulation of susceptible strains of these pathogens. Conclusions. Prospective epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring are required in the BMT units. Widespread contamination of household objects in the environment indicates the need to strengthen the hygienic education of patients and visitors as well as disinfection of these facilities. In addition, we recommend introduction of weekly fecal screening cultures to monitor intestinal colonization of patients with MDRO.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):350-358
pages 350-358 views

HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES IN THE STRUCTURE OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT TUMORS AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN MOSCOW AND RUSSIA

Briko N.I., Lopukhov P.D., Kaprin A.D., Novikova E.G., Trushina O.I., Khaldin A.A., Zhukova O.V., Isaeva D.R., Skvortsova A.I.

Abstract

The group of female reproductive tract tumors includes cancers of corpus uteri, ovary, cervix, vulva and vagina (the last three are associated with HPV). Among the large group of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) there are only six infections, which subject to registration in the official statistical data in Russia: syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, urogenital herpes and anogenital warts (AGWs). Occurrence of AGWs in 95–100% of cases caused by HPV types 6 and 11. Objectives: our aim was to determine the prevalence of HPV-associated diseases (cervical cancer and anogenital warts) in the structure of female reproductive tract tumors and STIs in recent years in Moscow, and to compare it with the prevalence in population of Russia. Methods: we analyzed retrospective data with diagnostic codes related to cancers of corpus uteri, ovary, cervix, vulva and vagina from the official statistic of cancer register using incidence and mortality rates between January 2007 and December 2015 in Russia and Moscow. We also analyzed retrospective data of STIs (incl. syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, urogenital herpes and AGWs) incidence rates between January 2003 and December 2015. Results: average rate of cervical cancer incidence among the female reproductive tract tumors accounted for 23.7% in Moscow (29.8% in Russia). Average rate of cervical cancer mortality among the female reproductive tract tumors accounted for 24.1% in Moscow (28.3% in Russia). The rate of AGWs in the STIs structure (for both sexes) in Moscow increased from 11.5% in 2003 to 25.7% in 2015 (the maximum was 31.0% in 2014). The highest rate of AGWs was detected in the age group 15–17 years (up to 59.8% in 2012), followed by 18–29 years (up to 37.3% in 2014). The rate of AGWs was 11.7% among all STIs (in both sexes) in Russia in 2015. Conclusion: HPV-associated diseases (cervical cancer and AGWs) take up a significant place in the structure of female reproductive tract tumors and STIs. And in the structure of the STI for Moscow, AGWs moved from the 5th (in 2003) to the 1st (in 2015) ranked place, surpassing syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and chlamydia. The effective prevention of HPV-infection would be able to improve the situation.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):359-366
pages 359-366 views

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN THE KALININGRAD REGION OF RUSSIA: 10 YEARS AFTER

Vyazovaya A.A., Akhmedova G.M., Solovieva N.S., Gerasimova A.A., Starkova D.A., Turkin E.N., Zhuravlev V.Y., Narvskaya O.V., Mokrousov I.V.

Abstract

In the Kaliningrad region, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has declined significantly over the past decade (from 134/100 000 in 2006 to 50.6/100 000 in 2015), but still exceeds the average for the North-West Russia (40.7/100 000). In view of the increase in the proportion of primary multidrug resistance (MDR) of the causative agent from 23.9% in 2010 to 30.5% in 2015, the aim of this study was to analyze the current Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure in the Kaliningrad region and to evaluate its spatial-temporal trends. The 73 M. tuberculosis isolates from patients with pulmonary TB newly diagnosed in 2015 were studied. Drug resistance (DR) was detected in 46 (63.0%) M. tuberculosis strains; of these, 32 (43.8%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The 46 (63.0%) of 73 M. tuberculosis strains were of the Beijing genotype with 19.2% (14 out of 73) share of the B0/W148 cluster. Spoligotyping of 27 non-Beijing M. tuberculosis strains made it possible to identify 15 spoligotypes of 5 genetic families — T, LAM, Ural, S, X. About half (16; 51.6%) of non-Beijing strains were represented by spoligotypes — SIT42, SIT53, SIT262, and SIT444. In a heterogeneous group T, mostly drugsusceptible strains of spoligotype SIT53 were prevailing. More than half (55.6%) of the LAM genotype strains exhibited DR. The Ural family was small (5.5%) and included strains of well-known in Russia M. tuberculosis spoligotypes SIT35 and SIT262, and one new, not found previously. MDR was statistically significantly associated with the Beijing genotype: 56.5% versus 25.9% in strains of other genotypes (in total) (P = 0.0134). Moreover, all 14 strains of epidemiologically and clinically significant B0/W148 cluster were MDR. The proportion of MDR strains of the Beijing genotype did not change significantly: in 2006 it was 61.3%, in 2015 — 56.5% (P = 0.6773). However, the spectrum of drug resistance to first-line anti-TB drugs expanded. If previously the majority (78.9%) of MDR strains additionally exhibited resistance to streptomycin only, in present study 72.0% of MDR strains were resistant to streptomycin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The proportion of MDR strains of non-Beijing genotypes was 25.9%, a significantly higher than the similar indicators in 2006 — 2.2% (P = 0.0124). A relatively smaller proportion of strains of the Beijing genotype (50%) was found in TB patients from the shores of the Baltic Sea, a territory with a relatively more favorable socio-economic situation and a higher standard of living. Thus, the current epidemiological situation of TB in the Kaliningrad region is crucially determined by the growing circulation of MDR Beijing family strains, as well as a significant increase in the proportion of MDR strains of other genotypes.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):367-374
pages 367-374 views

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INTESTINE MICROBIOME OF REPUBLIC OF GUINEA AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION RESIDENTS

Popova A.Y., Kaftyreva L.A., Suzhaeva L.V., Voitenkova E.V., Zabrovskaia A.V., Egorova S.A., Makarova M.A., Matveeva Z.N., Zueva E.V., Porin A.A., Boiro M.Y., Konstantinov O.K., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

The gut microbiota of healthy people, living in different regions, may vary considerably. The article presents the results of comparative qualitative and quantitative study of the intestine aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of residents of the Republic of Guinea (46) and Russia (60). The content of microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., Candida spp., non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria and others) in 1.0 gram of faeces was determined by bacteriological methods. Generic and species identification was performed using Vitek 2 Compact (bioMerieux, France), tube biochemical tests and MALDI-TОF mass spectrometry (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Pearson χ2 criterion, p < 0.05 and Fisher’s exact test (medstatistica.ru) were used to assess the differences in the compared groups. 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the method of Wilson. Microbiological disorders were characterized by a decrease in the number of obligate microorganisms, an increase in the number of facultative (opportunistic) microorganisms (above 106 CFU/g) and the emergence of their associations. Dysbiotic disorders were identified in both compared groups: in 100% patients from Republic of Guinea (95% CI:92.3–100) and in 86.7% patients from St. Petersburg (95% CI:75.8–93.1). Severe degree of microbiota disorders in the residents of the Republic of Guinea was revealed at 19.6% (95% CI:10.7–33.2), in group of residents of St. Petersburg in 9.6% (95% CI:4.2–20.6). In both groups the microbiota disorders of third degree were detected less frequently, compared with the microbiota disorders of second degree. The study has found no significant differences in the content of obligate bacteria (Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.), however, significant differences in the species composition of the facultative part of the microbiota were revealed. The residents of the Republic of Guinea had “atypical” E. coli (lactosonegative and hemolytic) and non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria Comamonas kerstersii more frequently. Opportunistic microorganism associations have been found in 30.4% of the residents of the Republic of Guinea (95% CI:19.1–44.8) and 18.3% of residents of St. Petersburg (95% CI:10.6–29.9). Opportunistic microorganism associations from the residents of the Republic of Guinea always contained Staphylococcus aureus. It is necessary to conduct further research on a bigger population to access the differences in the compared groups in Staphylococcus aureus and Hafnia alvei.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):375-382
pages 375-382 views

RESULTS OF GENOTYPING HEPATITIS VIRUS B IN HBsAg-NEGATIVE BLOOD DONORS IN ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN

Ostankova Y.V., Semenov A.V., Burkitbayev Z.K., Savchuk T.N., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

The prevalence of HBV infection is estimated by the frequency of occurrence of HBsAg and varies depending on the geographic region. Chronic infection is characterized by a stable presence of HBsAg for 6 months, with the exception of the occult form of the disease, characterized by the absence of HBsAg, an extremely low level of HBV DNA in the blood serum. The problem of identifying occult HBV (ocHBV) is especially relevant because of the development of transplantology and transfusiology. However, serological screening of donor blood used in the Russian Federation and Central Asian countries does not reveal HBV seronegative donors. Since HBV infection is possible with the introduction of small doses of the virus, the importance of using complex molecular methods for detecting donor ocHBV is obvious, despite the low viral load, since donor blood is used predominantly in patients with severe course of various diseases characterized by increased susceptibility to HBV because of immunosuppression. The aim of our work was to study the characteristics of the genetic structure of the ocHBV in donors in Astana, Kazakhstan. A total of 500 blood plasma samples from HBsAg-negative donors were obtained in 2012 from residents of Kazakhstan, Astana. Using the method, we proposed to detect HBV DNA with a low viral load, HBV was detected in 9.4% of donors. Serological markers were found in 12.7% of patients with HBV DNA, 8.5% had HBcor IgG antibodies, 4.2% had HBcor IgG and HBe IgG antibodies at the same time. Thus, in 41 (87.3%) of the blood donor, ocHBV was seronegative. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 47 isolates showed that the HBV of genotype D (95.75%) prevails in the examined group in comparison with HBV of genotype A (4.25%). HBV subgenotypes are represented in the following ratios: D1 — 46.8%, D2 — 17.05%, D3 — 31.9%, A2 — 4.25%. In a comparative analysis, the distribution of HBV subgenotypes in the group with ocHBV and in the case of the manifest form in donors in the Republic of Kazakhstan significantly differed — χ2 = 14.027 at p = 0.0072, df = 4. The incidence of HBV D3 with ocHBV (31.9%) exceeded that of patients with a manifest form (7.4%). The relative risk of occult form of disease in patients with the subgenotype D3 is significantly higher (RR = 1.572, CI: 1.179–2.096, p = 0.0208). When assessing the picture of HBV diversity on the material of the group including HBsAg-negative and HBsAg-positive blood donors, it is evident that the genetic relationship of the manifestations of the manifest HBV and the ocHBV of genotype D is obvious. Among the isolates are both similar in nucleotide sequences with those previously described in various regions of Europe and Central Asia, and circulating in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which indicates an independent homologous evolution of HBV in the region. The high incidence of ocHBV among HBsAg-negative blood donors is indicative not only of the widespread prevalence of the occult form of the disease course in the population and the inadequacy for the detection of chronic HBV of conventional HBsAg and HBV DNA in the peripheral blood using commercial kits, but also the need to study the characteristics of the immune response with this form of the disease course.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):383-392
pages 383-392 views

OCCURRENCE OF SMALL HOMOLOGOUS AND COMPLEMENTARY FRAGMENTS IN HUMAN VIRUS GENOMES AND THEIR POSSIBLE ROLE

Kharchenko E.P.

Abstract

With computer analysis occurrence of small homologous and complementary fragments (21 nucleotides in length) has been studied in genomes of 14 human viruses causing most dangerous infections. The sample includes viruses with (+) and (–) single stranded RNA and DNA-containing hepatitis A virus. Analysis of occurrence of homologous sequences has shown the existence two extreme situations. On the one hand, the same virus contains homologous sequences to almost all other viruses (for example, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and mumps virus), and numerous homologous sequences to the same other virus (especially in severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus to Dengue virus and in Ebola virus to poliovirus). On the other hand, there are rare occurrence and not numerous homologous sequences in genomes of other viruses (rubella virus, hepatitis A virus, and hepatitis B virus). Similar situation exists for occurrence of complementary sequences. Rubella virus, the genome of which has the high content of guanine and cytosine, has no complementary sequences to almost all other viruses. Most viruses have moderate level of occurrence for homologous and complementary sequences. Autocomplementary sequences are numerous in most viruses and one may suggest that the genome of single stranded RNA viruses has branched secondary structure. In addition to possible role in recombination among strains autocomplementary sequences could be regulators of translation rate of virus proteins and determine its optimal proportion in virion assembly with genome and mRNA folding. Occurrence of small homologous and complementary sequences in RNA- and DNA-containing viruses may be the result of multiple recombinations in the past and the present and determine their adaptation and variability. Recombination may take place in coinfection of human and/or common hosts. Inclusion of homologous and complementary sequences into genome could not only renew viruses but also serve as memory of existence of a competitor for host and means of counteraction against a competitor in coinfection being an analogy of the bacterial CRISPR/Cas system.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):393-404
pages 393-404 views

THE STUDY OF INFLUENZA VIRUS NEURAMINIDASE HYDRATION DEGREE

Grebenkina N.S., Kontarov N.A., Yuminova N.V.

Abstract

It is known that the functioning of many proteins and enzymes depends on the degree of hydration of their surfaces. In our studies, neuraminidase (NA) of influenza virus was selected as a model for surface antigenic viral protein. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) model of adsorption was used to calculate the values of water monolayer (am) at different values of water vapor pressure. The obtained BET isotherms allow for concluding that hysteresis takes place manifested by the difference between the monolayer am values for sorption and desorption of water from the surface of the enzyme, which is probably associated with a high degree of cooperation of the hydration shell formed. The maximum binding of water molecules was observed for the vapor pressure p/ps value of 0.65 and was am = 224 water molecules per a molecule of the enzyme. Basing on the calculated surface area of a NA tetramer (S = 256 nm2 ) and the maximum projection area of water molecule, it may be concluded that the entire surface of the enzyme is completely covered with a water monolayer. For said am value the maximum activity of NA was observed, whereas the minimum enzyme activity corresponded to the am value of 98 water molecules per a molecule of the enzyme, which corresponded to the water vapor pressure p/pS value of 0.38. Thus, for the influenza virus NA protein a dependency of the enzymatic activity on the degree of hydration of the surface of the enzyme is demonstrated. The dependence of immunogenicity of influenza virus from the extent of hydration of NA.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):405-408
pages 405-408 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

EPIDEMIOLOGY ASPECTS OF HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTION MORBIDITY IN HEALTH SURGERY HOSPITALS IN PRIMORSKY REGION

Martynova A.V., Gorkavaya A.Y., Abashina V.L., Semeikina L.M.

Abstract

The problem of prophylaxis and treatment of the hospital-acquired infections caused remains actual and urgent and stubborn in modern medicine. Appearance of antimicrobial agents resistant and high virulent strains adapting also to desinfectants. Development of innovative hi-tech diagnostic methods and treatment at wide circulation of microorganisms with multiple antimicrobial agents resistance defines need of continuous improvement of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring of this group of infections. Aim of project: to carry out the epidemiological analysis of a case rate of hospital-acquired infections in Primorsky Krai and to determine the specific role of hospital-acquired infections which arose in surgical hospitals and units. Material and methods: In work there were used statistical forms, e.g. No. 2 «The information on infectious and parasitic diseases» in Primorsky Krai. A research method — the retrospective epidemiological analysis. Results of a research: In 2015 in Primorsky Krai there were registered 159 cases of hospitalacquired infections, the indicator of a case rate made 0.05 per 1000 treated patients. In comparison with 2014 the case rate decreased, rate of depression made — 28%. According to the statistical reporting the greatest number of cases of hospital-acquired infections was registered in obstetrical institutions — 60 cases (38% of all hospital-acquired infections), in children’s hospitals — 46 (29%) and in surgical hospitals and units — 33 (21%). Other hospital-acquired infections are registered in out-patient and polyclinic institutions and in institutions of a therapeutic profile. In structure of hospitalacquired infections in the territory of Primorsky Krai in 2015, as well as in previous years, acute intestinal infections dominated (35 cases — 22%) and it is purulent — septic infections at newborns (34 cases — 21%). Conclusions: In the territory of Primorsky Krai the hospital-acquired infections are often registered in obstetrical institutions, in children’s and surgical hospitals and units. The tendency to hospital-acquired infections morbidity growthin surgical hospitals and units, most likely, not owing to augmentation of cases of postoperative complications, and at the expense of other nosologies.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):409-412
pages 409-412 views

K. OXYTOCA BACTERIOPHAGES ISOLATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT

Sadrtdinova G.R.

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study related to increasing the efficiency of phage isolation of bacteria of the species K. oxytoca, by developing the optimal composition of the medium used in the work. In scientific research, in almost all methods associated with the isolation of bacteriophages, meat-peptone broth and meat-peptone agar are used as the nutrient basis. The peculiarities of growth and cultivation of microorganisms create certain difficulties for the isolation of phages active against bacteria of the species K. oxytoca. The selection of components and the creation of an environment that would ensure the optimal growth of both the bacterial culture and the reproduction of the virus makes it possible to facilitate the isolation of bacteriophages. The number of bacterial strains used in the work was 7. All strains of cultures were obtained from the Museum of the Department of Microbiology, Virology, Epizootology and Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin”. The studies included 2 main stages. The first stage consisted in isolation of bacteriophages by the method of isolation from the external environment by the method of Adelson L.I., Lyashenko E.A. The material for the studies were samples: soil, sewage sample, fecal samples (2). Only 4 samples. According to the chosen method, the sowing of the putative phagolysate was carried out on meat-peptone agar (1.5%) and the agar for isolating bacteriophages (Aph) (1.5%). A positive result was the presence on the environment of negative colonies, clearly visible on the matt background of deep growth of bacteria. A negative result is a continuous growth (“lawn”) of bacterial culture. As a control, the culture of the microorganism studied was used for the media. In the course of the conducted studies for the first stage, 2 bacteriophages were isolated, active against the desired species of microorganism. The second stage consisted in a comparative analysis of the indices of cultivation of the isolated phages on standard meat-peptone agar and the proposed medium for isolation of bacteriophages. The main biological properties of the phages studied were also determined: morphology of negative colonies, lytic activity, specificity. The negative colonies formed on the compared media were classified as one type. The lytic activity of the studied phages on meat-peptone agar and Aph medium was the same. According to Grazia 2 × 107 BOE/ml for bacteriophage KO-3 UGSHA, (3–4) × 108BOE/ml for bacteriophage KO-8724 UGSHA. The isolated bacteriophages showed no lytic activity against strains of heterogeneous crops (Escherichia spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Hafnia spp., Yersinia spp.).

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):413-418
pages 413-418 views

PROBIOTIC-BASED SANITATION AS ALTERNATIVES TO CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS

Afinogenova A.G., Kraeva L.A., Afinogenov G.E., Veretennikov V.V.

Abstract

It is known that any surfaces in environment of healthcare organizations are a reservoir for microorganisms and contribute to transmission of pathogens, increasing the risk of cross-contamination through indirect contact with the patient. Wide and not always rational use of chemical disinfectants carries risks for the safety of the environment, the patient and medical staff. In this regard, there remains the search for alternative methods of purification and decontamination of abiotic surfaces in health care facilities. Tested the tool for cleaning areas that contain 3 strains of the genus Bacillus: B. subtillis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus. Were treated areas of the medical centre in St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute: the treatment room (experience) and the office of the gynecologist (control with conventional cleaning and disinfection). Within 30 days of the sowing of samples of swabs from surfaces were made of 3 Petri dishes with the “blood” agar-based environment “agar of Givental–Witch” debilitating touch (gold method). Isolated cultures of bacteria identified by microscopy, biochemical typing and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker). In control and the experience in the 1st day of observation prior to the cleaning sown Enterococcus faecium 104 –105 CFU/ml. The 2nd day of observation in the control was dominated by E. faecium, then his growth stopped. For the 2nd–4th day watched the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to 106 CFU/ml, in the future, the number was 10 CFU/ml until the end of the observation period (30 days). The 5th day in the control revealed the growth of bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp. mainly S. epidermidis. The experience from the 2nd day of observation revealed a significant increase in Bacillus spp. at 105 CFU/ml, then before the end of the experiment, the number was 102 –103 CFU/ml. In the 1st–2nd day revealed growth of E. faecium, and then it stopped. For the 2nd–4th day watched the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to the level of 106 CFU/ml, on the 8th day — to 102 CFU/ml, the growth of conditionally pathogenic microflora was absent. Cleaning of the premises on the basis of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bacillus inhibits the growth of sanitary-indicative microorganisms compared to control. Thus, the means of probiotic treatment did not have a biocidal effect, but inhabiting the surface, they inhibit the growth and proliferation of opportunistic bacteria.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2017;7(4):419-424
pages 419-424 views

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