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  • Authors: Savchenko A.A.1,2, Kudryavtsev I.V.3,4, Borisov A.G.1,2
  • Affiliations:
    1. Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Krasnoyarsk
    2. Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky, Krasnoyarsk
    3. Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg
    4. Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg
  • Issue: Vol 7, No 4 (2017)
  • Pages: 327-340
  • URL:
  • DOI:

Cite item


According to the modern concepts the respiratory burst directly related to the processes of phagocytosis characterizes the functional activity of phagocytic cells. This review presents modern methods for assessing the respiratory burst state of phagocytes based on cytofluorometric and chemiluminescent analysis. The sequence and mechanisms of the reactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis in the process of respiratory cell burst are presented in detail. The sequence of synthesis from ROS with low bactericidal activity to ROS with high bactericidal activity is characterized. The review describes in detail the most popular dyes for cytofluorometric analysis to assess the levels of ROS synthesis. Characteristics and examples of the use of such dyes as dihydroethidine, dichlorodihydrofluorescein and dihydrorhodamine 123 are given. The main stages and mechanisms of the chemiluminescence reaction are presented. The features of the use of the main indicators (luminol and lucigenin) of the chemiluminescence reaction are described. A mechanism for estimating the parameters of the chemiluminescence reaction characterizing the features of the state and kinetics of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells is given. The separate section of the review is devoted to the role of a respiratory burst in phagocytic cells in various immunopathological states. Data on the pathogenetic significance of changes in the intensity and kinetics of respiratory burst of phagocytes in infectious, inflammatory and oncological diseases were presented. Examples of new methods for diagnosing and predicting the course of the immunopathological states characters are presented on the basis of an assessment of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The literature data show that at present, in the diagnosis and evaluation of the nature of the diseases characters the state of a respiratory burst is evaluated in various types of cells of innate immunity: neutrophils, monocytes, etc. It is concluded that the evaluation of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells can be characterized as the fundamental mechanisms of reacting cells of innate immunity to pathogenic and regulatory effects, so to develop new highly sensitive methods for diagnosing and predicting the development and outcome of various immunopathological conditions. The presented methods of flow cytometry and chemiluminescence analysis make it possible to determine both the integral state of the respiratory explosion, and the levels and kinetic parameters of the synthesis of individual ROS.

About the authors

A. A. Savchenko

Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Krasnoyarsk;
Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky, Krasnoyarsk

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular-Cell Physiology and Pathology, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North Russian Federation

I. V. Kudryavtsev

Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg;
Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg

Author for correspondence.
PhD (Biology), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Immunology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Senior Researcher, Department of Fundamental Medicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russian Federation; Associate Professor, Department of Immunology, Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University Russian Federation

A. G. Borisov

Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Krasnoyarsk;
Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky, Krasnoyarsk

PhD (Medicine), Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular-Cell Physiology and Pathology, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North Russian Federation


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