Vol 4, No 4 (2014)

REVIEW

APOPTOSIS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Somova L.M., Besednova N.N., Plekhova N.G.

Abstract

Apoptosis as immunomodulating form of cell death plays a stabilizing role in maintaining optimal number of cells in an organism. The biological essence of cell death in infectious diseases is poorly reflected, and the concept of negative and positive values of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of diseases is presented ambiguously. The review focuses on the classical caspase-dependent apoptosis of innate and adaptive immunity cells, whose reactivity is associated with the initiation of infectious processes. Some causative agents of bacterial and viral infections can be triggers or inhibitors of apoptosis in a eukaryotic host cell, avoiding the factors of the immune system. In severe infectious diseases that occur with the development of sepsis, a fatal importance has the massive apoptotic loss of lymphocytes expressed lymphocyte apoptosis that leads to immunodeficiency states and the majority of patients corresponds to premortem decrease in circulating lymphocytes. Further studies on the identification of the molecular elements whereby pathogenic agents cause the cell death effort to develop new therapeutic approaches, including inhibition of apoptosis, to prevent the progression of severe courses of infections.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):303-318
pages 303-318 views

MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS VIRULENCE

Vishnevskiy B.I., Manicheva O.A., Yablonskiy P.K.

Abstract

This review presents recent data on the genetic determinants and the virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT). The mechanisms of adaptation of the pathogen in the host organism and alterative manifestations are described as well as the relationship of virulence, drug resistance and the genetic affiliation of MBT are analyzed in the
article. It was demonstrated the clinical and prognostic significance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. The cyclic changes in MBT virulence coincide with the rise and fall of the incidence of tuberculosis has been established. Some virulence factors are targets to create fundamentally new anti-TB drugs.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):319-330
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THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

Zarucheynova O.V.

Abstract

Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointment
of antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):331-338
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES

THE ROLE OF mutR GENE IN METABOLISM AND VIRULENCE OF emm12 GENOTYPE STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES STRAINS

Zutkis A.A., Milman B.L., Dmitriev A.V.

Abstract

In the present study the functional role of the mutR regulatory protein gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (emm12) was studied. The mutR gene was inactivated in the strains no. 97 and no. 152 by insertional mutagenesis. Inactivation of the mutR gene was found to affect the dynamic and characteristics of bacterial growth in liquid medium. Expression of secreted nucleases was significantly lower in the mutant strains compared to the wild-type strains. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry revealed differences in expression of number of the proteins in mutant strains
compared to the wild-type strains. Inactivation of the mutR gene negatively affected capacity of S. pyogenes to adhere to human epithelial cells. Finally, the virulence properties of the no. 152[mutR] mutant strains were found to be 4,7-fold less compared to the strain no. 152, while the no. 97[mutR] mutant strain became avirulent compared to the strain no. 97 due to insertional inactivation of the mutR gene.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):339-346
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THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PROAPOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN ISOLATED SUBPOPULATIONS OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOCYTES

Filatova E.N., Anisenkova E.V., Presnyakova N.B., Neumoina N.V., Sycheva T.D., Utkin O.V.

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used as activator and inductor of immune cells apoptosis in case of infectious processes modeling. It is not clear if LPS is direct inductor of apoptosis in human T-cells. The subpopulations of effector and naive CD4+ T-helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes of human peripheric blood were isolated and cultivated in presence of LPS. It has been shown that LPS was inductor of apoptosis in studying T-cells populations.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):347-352
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INFLUENCE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON AN OUTCOME FOR THE FIRST TIME DIAGNOSED INFILTRATIVE TUBERCULOSIS IN SOCIALLY SAFE PATIENTS

Mordyk A.V., Batishcheva T.L., Bryukhanova N.S., Puzyreva L.V.

Abstract

The assessment of immunological indicators in 76 first time diagnosed infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs in socially safe patients prior to treatment and in 2 months of chemotherapy was carried out. It is revealed that immunological disorders are connected with efficiency of tuberculosis treatment . It can be criterion of quality of provided chemotherapy. The activation of cell immunity, stimulation of phagocytosis activity of neutrophils would contribute for effective treatment of tuberculosis.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):353-358
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CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH HERPES INFECTIONS OF VARYING SEVERITY

Lyuboshenko T.M., Dolgikh T.I.

Abstract

The peculiarities of clinical signs, immune and interferon status in 180 patients with laboratory confirmed infection of varying severity, caused by herpes simplex virus (VSHI) have been studied. It was determined that frequency of bacterial infections is increased in patients with more severe clinical forms of VSHI. In patients with mild course furunculosis was more often detected than in other groups. In patients with moderate course of VSHI vaginal candidiasis was more common. In patients with severe VSHI course the combination of labial and genital herpes as well as infection caused by the human papilloma virus were more prevalent. In case of severe infection occurred an increased frequency of dysbiosis, fatigue, low grade temperature, iron deficiency anemia and malignancies. The highest frequency of allergic reactions is observed in patients with moderate course of VSHI. The autoimmune syndrome manifestations were not depend on the severity of VSHI. The degree of reduction of cell immunity and disorders in the system of interferon were closely related to severity of VSHI course.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):359-364
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INFLUENZA AND ARVI IN KYRGYZSTAN

Nurmatov Z.S.

Abstract

Incidences of influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) in the Kyrgyz Republic were analyzed taking in account results of virological testing, routine and sentinel surveillance data. A behavioral study in a population group selected with the method of systematic sampling (N = 226) using a special questionnaire has been conducted. In the period of 2008–2013 3750 ARVI patients were tested by molecular-genetical methods for influenza virus and
303 patients also were tested for parainfluenza, rhino-, denoviruses, respiratory-syncytial virus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. ARVI incidence rate in the epidemic season 2012–2013 in sentinel sites were 2.8 times higher than routine surveillance data for the same period. The results of the behavioral study demonstrated that 34.5% of the population had influenza in the epidemic season while according to routine surveillance data the same rate was only 4.8%. In addition, only 15.5% of the population who had influenza symptoms asked medical aid. It was found that increase in incidence
in November 2009 was caused by influenza virus А (H1N1)pdm.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):365-374
pages 365-374 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

IN VITRO METHOD FOR EXPRESSION OF TOXIN PRODUCTION IN NON-TOXIGENIC CORYNEBACTERIUM SPP. WITH “SILENT” TOX-GENE

Gabrielyan S.A.

Abstract

The «in vitro method» for expression of toxin-production by phenotypically non-toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae containing the “silent” toxin gene has been developed. The method can be characterised as rapid, economical, not demanding use of experimental animals, available to practical and scientific laboratories. Optimal conditions using this method were defined: nutrient mediums, frequency rate of passages, which provided restoration of toxin production. This method allowed to restore toxin-production in 10 out of 18 tested strains of C. diphtheriae with the “silent” toxin gene. Moreover, there was an increase of toxin roduction of by C. ulcerans and C. diphtheriae var. intermedius to the level allowing to detect toxin in the standard tests. The phenotype of a toxin-producing was defined by the Elek-test and ICS (immunechromatography set).

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):375-380
pages 375-380 views

ACTIVATION OF T. GONDII INFECTION AFTER ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS: DEPENDENCE ON TIME OF TRANSPLANTATION AND SEROLOGICAL STATUS OF THE PATIENTS

Chukhlovin A.B., Zubarovskaya L.S., Bondarenko S.N., Eismont Y.A., Semenov A.V., Vladovskaya M.D., Totolian A., Afanasyev B.V.

Abstract

The article focuses on aspects of T. gondii reactivation/reinfection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). We have observed 297 patients who received conditioning therapy and allogeneic grafts due to different oncohematological or lymphoproliferative diseases (1 to 60 years old, at a mediane of 19 years). Conditioning regimens were either myeloablative (35%), or non-myeloablative (65%). DNA diagnostics of T. gondii was performed on a regular basis at 0 to 6 months post-HSCT. IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were determined in 78 patients before HSCT, as well as in their donors. T. gondii DNA post-transplant proved to be positive in 13% of blood specimens, 9% of cerebrospinal liquor samples, 11% of bronchoalveolar cell lavages, and in 5% of urine sediments. In adolescent patients (10 to 14 years old), an increased prevalence of T. gondii was found in patients who received myeloablative treatment (p = 0.01). When assessing posttransplant dynamics of T. gondii, we have revealed distinct increase in the pathogen excretion within 1st month after HSCT (p = 0.03). Finally, initial presence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii in the patients was associated with lower incidence of the pathogen reactivation post-transplant.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):381-386
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ANNIVERSARIES

ANNIVERSARIES. Chereshnev V.A.

Abstract

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Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(4):387-388
pages 387-388 views

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