Vol 3, No 1 (2013)

REVIEW ARTICLES

MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AS AN ACTUAL PATHOGEN OF HUMAN MYCOBACTERIOSIS

Starkova D.A.

Abstract

Abstract. Mycobacteriosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria including M. avium complex. Despite the fact that the transmission of M. avium from human to human has not been proved, and mycobacteriosis has been sporadic, the number of cases of disseminated forms of disease caused by M. avium among HIV-positive patients during the last ten years was increasing. Limited knowledge about the structure of M. avium population in Russia and the lack of simple methods for the microbiological diagnosis make difficult the epidemiological monitoring of mycobacteriosis. This facilitates the use of modern, efficient molecular genetic methods for the species and subspecies identification and typing of M. avium. Thus, the detection of mobile element IS901, restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of hsp65 gene and IS1245 allow the detection and subspecies identification of M. avium. The study of genomic polymorphisms of bacterial strains for the assessment of M. avium population structure became feasible due to a complex of molecular techniques: VNTR-typing, IS1245-and IS1311-RFLP-typing.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):7-14
pages 7-14 views

THE HUMAN HERPES VIRUS TYPE 7

Nikolskiy M.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The review dealing with recently discovered T-cell lymphotropic Human Herpes Virus type 7 (HHV-7). The virus structure, genome characteristics, epidemiology and clinical manifestations in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients are discussed in the article.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):15-20
pages 15-20 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN THE URAL REGION, RUSSIA

Umpeleva T.V., Kravchenko M.A., Eremeeva N.I., Vyazovaya A.A., Narvskaya O.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Overall 178 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered in 2009–2011 from newly diagnosed epidemiologically unlinked to TB patients in the Ural region of Russia have been studied. The absolute concentration method was used for drug susceptibility testing. Mutations katG, inhA and rpoB associated with resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were detected by microchip technology («TB-Biochip»). The isolates were genotyped by real-time PCR for the detection of Beijing/non-Beijing genotypes and 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing according to «MIRU-VNTRplus» (http://www.miru-vntrplus.org). More than half (55.1%) of 178 isolates belonged to the Beijing family, 58.7% of them were multiple drug resistant (MDR) mostly due to rpoBSer531→Leu and katGSer315→Thr1 substitutions. Fifty VNTR profiles were found in 98 Beijing isolates; 57 of them grouped into 9 clusters. The largest VNTR cluster included 23 (23.5%) Beijing isolates and 21 of them were MDR. The 80 non-Beijing isolates showed 64 distinct VNTR patterns which belonged to 6 genetic families: LAM, Ural, Haarlem, etc. Among LAM and Ural isolates 30.4% and 28.6% were MDR, respectively. The 5 of 7 MDR LAM isolates had specific mutation profile:  rpoBAsp516→Val substitution and mutations katGSer315→Thr1 and inhA_T15. The MDR Ural isolates showed the heterogeneity of mutations in rpoB gene compared to other genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the emergence and spread of MDR-TB in the Ural region which is characterized by circulation of MDR strains of different genotypes with the Beijing family genotype to be predominant.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):21-28
pages 21-28 views

ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

Egorova S.A., Kaftyreva L.A., Lipskaya L.V., Konovalenko I.B., Pyasetskaya M.F., Kurchikova T.S., Vedernikova N.B., Morozova O.T., Smirnova M.V., Popenko L.N., Lubushkina M.I., Savochkina J.A., Makarova M.A., Suzhaeva L.V., Ostankova J.V., Ivanova M.N., Pavelkovich A.M., Naaber P., Sepp E., Kõljalg S., Miciuleviciene J., Balode A.

Abstract

Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials) were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1) were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg) is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):29-36
pages 29-36 views

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF THE BACTERIA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM THE PATIENTS WITH DIABETES AND HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN CARDIOSURGICAL HOSPITAL

Yagodina A.Y., Pegushina O.G., Maslov Y.N., Serova I.A., Naumov S.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The study was performed in the Perm Krai Clinical Hospital N 2 “Heart Institute”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility in isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus and HIV-infected patients. In all groups involved in the study (patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with HIV infection, and control group) the predomination of the Gram-positive species have been revealed. This fact is typical for surgical departments. More isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were found in the group of HIV-infected patients compared to patients in the control group (20.6% vs 4.6%, p = 0.02, respectively). Oxacillin resistance rate in Staphylococcus aureus was higher in the group of HIV-infected patients than in patients from the control group. Significant differences in Staphylococcus epidermidis resistance rate between HIV-infected patients and patients in the control group were detected for oxacillin (60% vs 10%, p = 0.03, respectively). It is plausible that in the group of immunocompromised patients vancomycin might be recommended for empiric therapy of infections caused by gram-positive species. The Enterococcus faecalis was more often isolated from HIV-infected patients in compare with patients from the control group (34.5% vs 13.8%, p = 0.02), probably due to severe immunodeficiency in the late stages of HIV infection. The absence of significant differences in resistance rate in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphilococcus epidermidis between patients with diabetes and patients in the control group could be considered as important. This fact might be associated with judicious control of glycemia during the pre-, intra-, and postoperative time periods. Postoperative pyoinflammatory diseases remain serious obstacle for the progress in cardiosurgery. Consequently, it’s important to know the characteristics of the microflora, colonizing the patients.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):37-42
pages 37-42 views

NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

Rozhdestvenskaya A.S., Santos-Sanches I., Dmitriev A.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):43-48
pages 43-48 views

CYTOKINES AND CHEMOKINES IN THE BLOOD PLASMA OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Sysoev K.A., Chukhlovin A.V., Shakhmanov D.M., Zhdanov K.V., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. Pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) remains to be determined. Mechanisms of liver parenchyma damage in patients with CHC are complex and different. Cytokines play the role of intermediaries in the process of fibrosis development and chronic inflammation. In the present study levels of 27 cytokines in the blood plasma of 14 patients with CHC were tested using multiplex analysis. The liver biopsy was performed in all patients to define the activity of inflammation (histological activity index) and the degree of fibrosis. Nineteen samples of blood plasma obtained from healthy individuals were served as a control group in this study. The following cytokines were measured: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, eotaxin, FGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, PDGF-BB, TNFα and VEGF. In patients with CHC elevated levels of plasma IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-7, IFNγ, IL-12 (p70), IL-4, IL-9, IL-8, IP-10, eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1β, TNFα, G-CSF and GM-CSF were found in compare with the control group. At the same time levels of FGF-2 and PDGF-BB were reduced in patients with CHC in compare with controls. Differences in the production of IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-7, IFNγ, IL-12 (p70), IL-4, IL-9, IL-8, IP-10, eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1β, TNFα, G-CSF and GM-CSF were depend on the genotype of HCV (3a or 1b), histological activity index in liver tissue and the degree of liver fibrosis. The revealed changes of cytokine production in patients with CHC characterize different orientation of regulatory violations confirming that CHC is an immunopathological process.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):49-58
pages 49-58 views

EFFICIENCY OF IMMUNOCORRECTION IN СHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS C PATIENTS TREATED BY ANTIVIRALS

Sklyar L.P., Markelova E.V., Gorelova I.S.

Abstract

Abstract. Chronic hepatitis C antiviral therapy should be followed by immune rehabilitation measures directed to T-cell immunity stimulation and elimination of circulating immune complexes. The dynamics of concentrations of molecular fractions of circulating immune complexes and immunoglobulins has been studied. Moreover, phagocytosis indices were evaluated during combined antiviral therapy by standard PEG-interferon and ribavirin and immuno correction drag Ronkoleukin. Application of Ronkoleukin in combination with antiviral therapy determines possibilities to optimize existing treatment protocols of chronic hepatitis C.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):59-64
pages 59-64 views

ETIOLOGY OF SEASONAL INCREASING OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Shishko L.A., Romanenkova N.I., Bichurina M.A., Gordienko T.A., Rozaeva N.R., Golitcina L.N., Fomina L.B., Kanaeva O.I., Lialina L.V., Novikova N.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The etiology of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection incidence in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2008–2011 has been studied. The ECHO 6, ECHO 9 and ECHO 30 viruses were isolated and identified from patients with enteroviral infection in this period. The highest enteroviral infection incidence rate in Arkhangelsk oblast which was 5,1 times higher in compare with average country index was registered in 2008. It was proved by the virological and molecular biological methods that the main etiological agent caused enteroviral meningitis cases in the seasonal outbreak in 2008 was ECHO 30 virus which was very similar to the ECHO 30 strain identified in the Veliky Novgorod in 2008. In 2009 from patients in enteroviral meningitis epidemic focus the ECHO 9 viruses were isolated. These viruses were similar to the ECHO 9 strains circulated in Russia in 2009. It was established that in the period of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2010–2011 in general circulated ECHO 6 viruses which clustered in 3 separate phylogenetic groups. Viruses ECHO 6 detected in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2011 were different from viruses identified in 2010. Results of the study confirm that monitoring of viruses in case of enteroviral infection remains the one of the important types of additional measures in the frame of Global Program of poliomyelitis eradication. This monitoring is absolutely necessary to define characteristics of epidemic process of enteroviral infection.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):65-72
pages 65-72 views

ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS INCIDENCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA

Khabalova N.R.

Abstract

Abstract. Nosocomial infections occur in 5–20% of hospitalized patients. Officially, from 50 to 60 thousand cases of nosocomial infections are annually reported in the Russian Federation. The rapid development of invasive medical techniques, inappropriate use of antibiotics, instability of the sanitary-epidemiological, socio-economic, sociopolitical and socio-demographic situations could be considered as prerequisites for the increasing of many infectious diseases, including nosocomial infections. The detailed epidemiological analysis of nosocomial infections incidence at regional level provides the most complete picture of epidemiological situation and determines the tactics of surveillance and infection control. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term dynamics of nosocomial infections incidence in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. The study of epidemic process manifestations was based on the retrospective analysis of incidence from 1993 to 2010.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):73-78
pages 73-78 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

CERVICAL SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

Еrshov V.A., Vyazovaya A.A., Narvskaya O.V., Lyalina L.V., Lisyanskaya Z.S.

Abstract

Abstract. The cytological evidence of cervical squamous epithelium lesions associated with HPV infection was identified as the presence of koilocytes in 16% of patients and atypical multicore cells with core and/or cytoplasm dystrophy of para-basal layer cells in 46%. The high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were associated with the presence of HPV 16 mostly in combination with other high risk HPV genotypes.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):79-82
pages 79-82 views

THE IMMUNE STATUS AND IFN GENE POLYMORPHISM AS PROGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEPATITIS C TREATMENT IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS

Kovaleva E.S., Gumilevsky B.Y.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of immune status and IFN gene polymorphism in the prediction of the efficacy of chronic hepatitis C antiviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Eighty HIV-infected patients with hepatitis C were recruited. Antiviral therapy included pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Flow cytometry was used to test the immune status; polymerase chain reaction method was used for the IFN gene polymorphisms determination. It was found the significant differences in the immune status and allelic variants combinations of the genes responsible for the formation of an adequate immune and antiviral responses in groups of patients with different response to treatment of hepatitis C. Herewith the effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment in HIV-infected patients is associated with the activation of T-cell immunity. Polymorphisms of interferon gene with other prognostic factors, make it possible to better define the disease prognosis and the treatment efficacy.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):83-88
pages 83-88 views

A NEW APPROACH TO BRUCELLOSIS ALLERGODIAGNOSTICS

Ponomarenko D.G., Logvinenko O.V., Sarkisian N.S., Rakitinа C.L., Golub O.G., Kulichenko A.N.

Abstract

Abstract. The new cytometric method for laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis in vitro conditions based on detection of hypersensitivity to Brucella has been developed. This test allows to differentiate vaccinal and infectious processes in case of chronic brucellosis, and to measure the level of patient sensibilization to Brucella. Thus, the test might be used to estimate intensity of post-vaccination immunity before re-immunization against brucellosis. Using of flow cytometry in the test excludes additional antigenic influence on human organism and allows to provide testing within 1 hour.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(1):89-92
pages 89-92 views

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