Vol 4, No 3 (2014)

REVIEW ARTICLES

SPECIFIC IMMUNOLOGICAL TESTS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS OF GENITALS

Yakovleva A.A., Mordyk A.V.

Abstract

The analysis of Russian and foreign publications contained results of application of specific immunological methods for diagnostics of genital tuberculosis in patients with infertility has been carried out. It was established that methods of assessment of the system cellular (stimulated of gamma interferon by M. tuberculosis) and humoral (levels of specific immunoglobulins A, M, G classes) and also evaluation of the local specific immunity in patients with infertility were the perspective direction of identification and diagnostics of tuberculosis of genitals in women with infertility in time.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):207-212
pages 207-212 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIA IN GRANULOMA CELLS FROM MICE WITH LATENT TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION AND IN BONE MARROW AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES AFTER BCG VACCINE APPLICATION IN VITRO

Ufimtseva E.G.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the content of BCG-mycobacteria in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with latent tuberculosis after in vivo exposure to BCG vaccine and in mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages after BCG infection in vitro. The granuloma cells obtained from mice through 20 days, one and two months after their BCG-infecting in vivo were differed with respect to both the number of granulomas with macrophages containing the defined numbers of BCG-mycobacteria and the quantity of cells with the defined numbers of bacilli in granulomas. However, in the preparations obtained from each mice, granuloma macrophages contained solitary BCGmycobacteria. At the same time, a shorter acute infection of mouse peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages by BCG vaccine resulted in considerable growth of bacilli in the host cells for 5 days in the culture in vitro. Therefore, granuloma macrophages could control BCG infection both in mice with latent tuberculosis in vivo and in the ex vivo culture, on the contrary, the bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages were not capable to control the BCG infection in the culture in vitro.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):213-220
pages 213-220 views

MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INFLAMMATORY REACTION IN PATIENTS WITH INFILTRATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

Titarenko O.T., Dyakova M.E., Manicheva O.A., Esmedlyaeva D.S., Dogonadze M.Z., Alexeyeva N.P., Perova T.L., Melnikova N.N.

Abstract

Host-pathogen relations were analyzed on basis of the results of examinations of 42 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (IPT) with regard for the biological characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) and the biomarkers of the inflammatory reaction — the acute phase proteins (APPs). The genotypes of MBT (Beijing and the others) and the efficacy of threeonth antituberculosis therapy were used as the grouping factors. Genotype Beijing MBT patients were significantly often characterised by multiple drug resistant, had widespread pulmonary damage and association of MBT cytoxicity with the effect of therapy. The patients with the best postreatment effect had initial (pretreatment) APPs levels in the range of the referent ones. These conclusions were confirmed by analysis of the correlation pleads of the characteristics of the “host-pathogen” system and their discriminant analysis with regard for MBT genotypes and results of antituberculosis three-month therapy. It was shown that the constellation of four host’s APP characteristics (haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, elastase and adenoaminase activities) has above 90% prognostic efficacy of treatment in spite of MBT genotype. It is suggested that in IPT patients the first component of the “host-pathogen” system reflecting the reaction of the patient’s organism to the MBT induced inflammatory process is more prognostically important.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):221-228
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DEVELOPMENT OF FUSION RECOMBINANT PROTEINS BASED ON VP6 AND VP8 OF HUMAN ROTAVIRUS A

Dukhovlinov I.V., Bogomolova E.G., Fedorova E.A., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

Rotaviruses are the most frequent cause of children enteritis. This infection often leads to severe dehydration of organism. Many infectious diseases are accompanied by fluid loss being the most common cause of death. Nowadays an early vaccination is considered to be the most effective way for prevention of rotavirus infection. However attenuated alive vaccines are used for this purpose which can result in different complications. The candidate vaccine presented in this study was designed on the basis of recombinant fusion proteins — the crucial active agents for development of immune response against rotaviruses. As part of the study the following steps were taken: the design of fusion proteins VP6VP8 and FliCVP6VP8; protocol adjustment for induction of genes encoding these proteins expression, which yields in high level of the protein with minor expenditures; production and purification of recombinant proteins VP6VP8 and FliCVP6VP8 with metal affinity chromatography.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):229-234
pages 229-234 views

MICROECOLOGY OF NASOPHARYNGEAL MUCOSAL MEMBRANES AND ESTIMATION OF FACTORS OF MUCOSAL AND LYMPHOCYTIC IMMUNITY IN RECRUITS DURING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIZED TEAM

Nikiforov V.A., Efimov E.I., Piskarev Y.G., Belyaeva E.V., Ermolina G.B.

Abstract

Contamination of nasopharyngeal mucosa by opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria in practically healthy people during the formation of the close group has been accompanied by a dysfunction of mucosal immunity, imbalance
of cytokine profile, insolvency of antioxidant system, increasing endointoxication. Adequate changes of serum immunoglobulins level in patients with nasopharyngeal dysbiosis allow to conclude of usefulness of the pre-emptive vaccination and using drugs with immunomodulatory effect which reliably satisfy body’s need for antioxidants.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):235-240
pages 235-240 views

IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MONOINFECTION BY HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND IN PATIENTS CO-INFECTED BY PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND UROGENITAL PATHOGENS

Savchenko A.A., Tshai V.B., Kruglova K.Y., Borisov A.G.

Abstract

Aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of cellular and humoral immunity and functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in women with monoinfection by human papillomavirus and combination of human papillomavirus (HPVI) and urogenital pathogens (UGI). It was established that more serious disorders in the immune system in women were revealed in case of mixed HPVI and UGI in compare with case of monoinfection by human papillomavirus. Only in patients with combined HPVI and UGI the content of total lymphocytes, T-cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes was reduced. In patients with combined HPVI and UGI the humoral immunity was characterised by increased concentration of IgM, its level of relative synthesis and content of circulating immune complexes. Independently of the infection type in women the reduction of CD4+ lymphocytes, NK-cells, increased number of γδТ-lymphocytes, as well as increase the functional activity of blood neutrophils have been detected. However, in case of combined HPVI and UGI an inhibitory effect on the reserve capacities of phagocytic cells was revealed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):241-248
pages 241-248 views

INCIDENCE OF RUBELLA IN NORTH WEST RUSSIA ON THE STAGE OF ELIMINATION OF RUBELLA

Bichurina M.A., Lavrentyeva I.N., Zheleznova N.V., Antipova A.Y., Timofeeva E.V.

Abstract

Analysis of incidence of Rubella in the period of 2001–2013 on the territory of North West Federal Region of Russia evidences that the large scaled vaccination in the frames of the “Public Health” National Project considerably influenced the epidemical process of the rubella virus infection (RVI). However at the same time besides the drastic decrease of Rubella incidence to sporadic level (0.4 per 100 000 in 2013) and limited transmission of RVI the shift of Rubella incidence to the eldest age groups was observed: 94% of patients with RVI in 2013 were more than 17 years old. Among Rubella cases the vaccinated patients consisted 3.7% in 2013 and revaccinated 7.1% in 2012. According to gender distribution males with RVI were revealed more frequently than females. The outbreak of Rubella in one of the Military Colleges is described. At present time RV strains of 2B genotype circulate in North West Russia. Cases of wrong clinical diagnosis of Rubella were revealed: in 2011–2013 only for 19% of patients the Rubella was laboratory confirmed. Thus on the stage of the elimination of Rubella the verification of each Rubella case is extremely necessary.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):249-256
pages 249-256 views

FLU IN CHILDREN AFTER A PANDEMIC IN ST. PETERSBURG GENERAL HOSPITAL

Dondurey E.A., Sukhovetskaya V.F., Osidak L.V., Konovalova N.I., Lobova T.G., Pisareva M.M., Gladchenko L.N., Obraztsova E.V., Gonchar V.V., Minchenko S.I., Korcheniuk L.V.

Abstract

Flu monitoring was carried out in children’s general hospital in St. Petersburg within three epidemic seasons (2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013). 1916 patients under the age of 18 years were examined with the complex of virologic tests . The natural decreasing of flu incidence and predominant diagnosing in etiologic structure one of the virus serotypes [in the first A(H1N1)pdm09, in the second — A(H3N2)] have been observed during the first two years after a pandemic. In the third season restoration of the main characteristics of epidemic flu situation were detected: polietiology with annual change of serotypes proportions, late start (winter and spring), majority of younger children among hospitalaized patients and a mild course of disease. The most probable candidates [viruses of a subtype A(H3N2)] are revealed as a causal factor of significant increasing of disease incidence with the severe forms in the near future. Laboratory data were confirmed by increase in frequency of the complicated by pneumonia ARI at hospitalized patients during the periods of their maximum registration. All isolates received during the study were corresponded to the referens-strains included in vaccines. Thus, timely and appropriate vaccination during the studied period had to become an effective protection against a flu.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):257-266
pages 257-266 views

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 1994–2013

Trifonova G.F., Levakova I.A., Bolsun D.D., Mukomolov S.L.

Abstract

Since discovery of Hepatitis C virus in 1989 and starting of official registration of acute and chronic cases of Hepatitis C (HC) in the Russian Federation in 1994 there are a lot of data demonstrating epidemic process development of HCV infection in the country as well as features of HCV epidemiology.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):267-274
pages 267-274 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

THE ANALYSIS OF IXODES TICKS INFESTATION WITH TBEV IN KIROV REGION

Bessolitsyna E.A., Volkov S.A., Stolbova F.S., Darmov I.V.

Abstract

The objects of this study are Ixodes ticks which were collected in different areas of Kirov province. The aim of the study is to determine the proportion of TBEV infected ticks using the reverse transcription and PCR, depending
on time, place, and methods of collection in the Kirov province as well as of ticks specific and sexual identity. The study found that from the two tick species that were tested only taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus) but not the meadow thick (Dermacentor reticulatus) was the TBEV vector. Study also has shown that both males and females ticks can be the TBEV vectors. Moreover, it was proved the importance of ticks testing which were gathered not only from human but also from animals, primary from dogs, and from the plants.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):275-278
pages 275-278 views

BIFIDUM-MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION AND CULTIVATION OF BIFIDOBACTERIA

Domotenko L.V., Shepelin A.P.

Abstract

The comparative evaluation of Bifidum-medium quality (the nutrient medium for cultivation and selection bifidobacteria, dry) and Blaurock medium has been performed. It was shown that Bifidum-medium supports the typical growth of the main types of bifidobacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, B. adolescentis, B. infantis, B. longum. The comparable results for the efficacy and the activity accumulation of acid were obtained in the study of probiotic «bifidumbacterin » using both media. In studies of faecal material the medium concentration of bifidobacteria was found 8.15 lg CFU/g on Bifidum-medium and 6.68 lg CFU/g on Blaurock medium.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):279-283
pages 279-283 views

FOR THE PRACTICAL PHYSICIANS

CRYOGLOBULINEMIC VASCULITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HBV INFECTION: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Dunaeva N.V., Nikitina O.E., Stukov B.V., Karev V.E., Mazing A.V., Lerner M.Y., Lapin S.V., Totolian A.

Abstract

Description of two clinical cases of chronic HBV hepatitis at cirrhotic stage associated with type III cryoglobulinemia manifested with symptoms of systemic vasculitis is presented in current article. There were no signs of HCV infection in both patients. In first case cutaneous vasulitis appeared after 19 years since serological finding of HBsAg and vasculitis progressed despite steroid therapy. Initiation of antiviral therapy (entecavir 0.5 g/day) induced transient remission. After interruption of antiviral therapy vasculitis reappeared with several vasculitic ulcers on lower legs. Mild improvement of vasculitis was noted after repeated plasmapheresis, steroid and cytostatic treatment with addition of lamivudin. Despite therapy reactivation of HBV infection was detected. Lamivudin was changed to entecavir and rituximab was given in two 500 mg infusions. Combined antiviral and anti-CD20 treatment induced remission of cutaneous vasculitis and healing of leg ulcers. In other case vasculitis manifested after 21 years since detection of HBsAg with cutaneous purpura, arthritis and microhematuria. Entecavir 0.5 g/day induced rapid virological response and complete remission of symptoms related to vasculitis. Similar literature cases were reviewed and available treatment options in refractory cryoglobulinemic vasculitis were discussed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(3):284-292
pages 284-292 views

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