Vol 4, No 2 (2014)

REVIEW ARTICLES

MODERN APPROACHES TO LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF RICKETTSIAL DISEASES

Eremeeva M.E., Shpynov S.N., Tokarevich N.K.

Abstract

Abstract. We present a concise review of contemporary laboratory methods for diagnosis of rickettsioses with special emphasis on diseases known in Russian Federation. Classic and emerging rickettsioses are transmitted by a diverse and expanding group of arthropod vectors including ticks, fleas, lice and mites. While epidemiological and clinical clues can provide information important for initial suspicion of rickettsial infection, sensitive and specific laboratory methods are necessary for providing probable or confirmed diagnosis of the rickettsial infection. Accurate and rapid confirmation of rickettsial infection is important for ensuring proper clinical care and prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy. Correct identification of the etiology of rickettsial diseases is also important for early identification of clustered cases, novel foci of infections, and for timely initiation of public health responses to these potentially fatal infections.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):113-134
pages 113-134 views

PROCEEDINGS OF THE III SYMPOSIUM WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION «HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION AND CANCER…»

REGIONAL EXPERIENCE OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)

Afanaseva L.N., Ignateva M.E., Lyalina L.V., Savvina N.V., Smetanina V.D.

Abstract

Abstract. There are evidences of increasing cervix uteri malignant tumors in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the period of 2003–2013. In such situation new, more effective, but less expensive organizational measures for prevention and early identification of oncological diseases should be developed. The recent epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that high-oncological-risk genital papilloma viral infection was certain risk factor of developing pre-cancer changes and cervical cancer. Detection of HPV regional epidemiological characteristics is extremely important for optimization of programs on diagnostics and prevention of cervix uteri cancer. The epidemiological and molecular-biological studies in Yakutia have detected more high infection rate in the female population than in male one. It was established that 11 high-oncological-risks genotypes of the virus circulating in the region with considerable prevalence of HPV Type 16. Since 2008 the program on vaccination against papilloma viral infection for girls and young women aged 10 to 25 years has been implemented in Yakutia Over six years, the number of vaccinated girls and women in Yakutsk reached 1093 persons. It has been the first experience in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Regions.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):137-142
pages 137-142 views

COMPARE THE LEVEL OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ANTIGEN IN SERUM AND LOCAL IMMUNITY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE FORM OF CERVICAL CANCER

Baturina I.L., Orner I.U., Zotova M.A., Abramovskih O.S., Nikushkina K.V., Telesheva L.F.

Abstract

Abstract. Cervical cancer continues to take a leading position in the structure of cancer pathology in women. This situation calls for the search for new diagnostic criteria for prognosis of the disease. The study found that tumor marker SCCA is immunologically dependent and its detection should be carried out in conjunction with immunological parameters of cervical mucus. This is important not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring of anticancer therapy conducted to determine prognosis of the disease and preclinical detection recurrence of cervical cancer.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):143-147
pages 143-147 views

THE ROLE OF CYTOLOGICAL AND VIROLOGICAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

Bahidze E.V., Kovchur P.I., Yastrebova A.V.

Abstract

Abstract. This article is devoted to the role of cytological and virological screening in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Five hundred and fifty two cases of carcinoma in situ (of cervical cancer) and 1248 cases of invasive cervical cancer over a period of 15 years were analyzed. This period has separated into three stages: I — 1998–2002, II — 2003–2007, III — 2008–2012 years. Cervical cancer morbidity in Karelia is reported to increase tripled from 10.5 to 30.5 causes per 100 thousand women population. The excess incidence has identified among young women in reproductive age including 
an age group < 30 year. It has been noticed that the detection rate of carcinoma in situ was statistically significant increased from 24.34±9.2% in 1998–2002 to 62.8±20.9% in 2008–2012 years. There are three different level regional groups of early cervical cancer detection (0–I–II stage) in the Republic of Karelia. Despite of the fact, that the cervical cancer is increas-ing significantly, there are a good results of its early diagnostics, thanking to the cytological and virological screening in Karelia.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):148-154
pages 148-154 views

REGIONAL VACCINATION PROGRAM FOR THE PREVENTION OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES IN THE KHMAO-YUGRA

Belotsercovtseva L.D., Mayer Y.I., Leskova S.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Unlike other malignancies, only for cervical cancer a viral etiology in all cases has been proved. This evidencing a unique opportunity to prevent this type of cancer by vaccination against HPV. Implementation of preventive vaccination against HPV infection in routine clinical practice will reduce cancer risk in population and decrease the probability of early cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. In 2014 Ugra actively started school vaccination program for teenage of 12 years-girls.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):155-161
pages 155-161 views

HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION AND HEAD AND NECK CANCER PROGRESSION

Bychkov V.A., Urazova L.N., Nikitina E.G., Cheremisina O.V., Chizhevskaya S.Y.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of present study was to evaluate the influence of HPV infection on lymphogenic metastasis and survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. DNA was isolated from tumor tissue and tumor-adjacent normal epithelium of 64 patients with head and neck tumors of different localization. Detection of 12 HPV genotypes was carried out by the PCR using AmpliSens diagnostic kits (Russia). The association between HPV infection and clinical-pathological parameters of the patients was assessed. HPV was detected in tumor tissue and in the surrounding normal tissue in 22% of patients. The most common HPV genotypes were 16 and 51. No association of HPV infection with sex, age, location, TNM stage and differentiation grade was found. The Kaplan Meier method showed a tendency towards the improvement of the overall and recurrence-free survival of HPV-positive patients with head and neck cancer (p = 0.09 and p = 0.12 respectively). The multivariate survival analysis using Cox’s regression model showed that the patient’s age and the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.002) significantly influence on patient survival (p = 0.014 and p = 0.002 respectively).

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):162-166
pages 162-166 views

MECHANISM OF GENESIS OF NEOPLASIA AT DEFEAT OF CERVICAL EPITHELIUM BY HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

Ershov V.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The 1044 biopsies from HPV-positive cervical epithelia were tested by cytological, histological, immunomorphological methods and PCR. One of the mechanisms of genesis of cervical cancer is damage of mitotic apparatus owing to association E7 HPV with NuMA 1, leads to infringement of distribution of chromosomes and virus DNA between daughter cells, shown pathological mitosis and integration of virus DNA. Infringements of differentiation of cells at CIN testified to their delay in pre-mitotic phases of cellular cycle unlike SCC which cells, having finished mitosis, are capable to the differentiation, accompanied by infringement of intercellular adhesion and neoanginesis. Genesis koilocytes and the cells of leukoplakia it is caused by defeat HPV basal cells.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):167-172
pages 167-172 views

THE CHANGES OF OF CELLULAR IMMUNITY PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH PREINVASIVE AND MICROINVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT

Kovchur P.I., Bahidze E.V., Yastrebova A.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The comparative study of immunocompetent cells’ phenotype was performed in patients with the preinvasive and microinvasive cervical cancer before and after the treatment. Besides, the study of importance of selected cellular immunity indices as a predicitive factors of effective surgical treatment in a combination with immunotherapy (the study group) in comparison with a surgical treatment only (the control group) have been conducted. The true numerical normalization of subpopulation composition of peripheral blood lymphocyte has been determined including the expression level of suppressor lymphocytes molecular markers (FOXP3 и TGF-β1) and the expression level of CD95-marker in a study group in comparison with a control group. Moreover, true decrease of HPV (human papillomavirus) — positive patients (1.7%) and the absence of E7 oncoprotein in the study group have been discovered.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):173-180
pages 173-180 views

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EVIDENCES OF VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION IN SAINT-PETERSBURG

Lyalina L.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Analysis of anogenital warts morbidity in St. Petersburg and Russian Federation in 2000–2013 has been carried out. The incidence rate in the population of St. Petersburg during the observation period was found to be 1.4–2.3 times higher. In 2011–2013, 3310 pregnant women were tested for high carcinogenic risk HPV by PCR. Prevalence rate of HPV genotype 16 was 11.0 per 100 tested persons. Other genotypes (31, 52, 33, 45, 58, 39, 18, 59, 35)were determined less often (p < 0.001) 6.3; 6.3; 5.1; 4.02; 3.7; 3.4; 2.9; 2.8 and 2.7 per 100 persons, respectively. An increased morbidity of cervical cancer in women aging from 25 to 49 years old was established. Assessment of the economic burden of diseases associated with HPV has shown that in 2012 in St. Petersburg expenses were more than one billion rubles. In the structure of economic lost the largest proportion was associated with premature mortality of women with cervical cancer.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):181-186
pages 181-186 views

GENITAL WARTS INCIDENCE IN SAINT-PETERBURG, LENINGRADSKAYA REGION, KARELIYA REPUBLIC IN 2004–2013

Stebelko O.Y., Gayvoronskaya O.V., Kasatkin E.V., Katkyavichene E.V., Egorova Y.S.

Abstract

Abstract. In 2012, information on vaccination against human papillomavirus infection was included in the form of state statistics number 5 «Information on vaccinations» in according to the Order of Rosstat number 645. In the world practice, as one of the early performance criteria of effectiveness of immunization against human papilloma virus is  morbidity rate by anogenital warts. The aim of this study was to investigate the regional characteristics of distribution of anogenital (venereal) warts before and in the initial periods of vaccination against human papillomavirus infection in three regions of the North-West Federal Regions — Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia. The period of retrospective epidemiological analysis was 10 years. There were significant differences in the levels and trends, morbidity by anogenital warts in general population and by gender. Moreover, different patterns of the frequency of disease among household contacts were revealed. In all three areas persons of 18–29 years old were identified as the risk group. The importance of determining the characteristics of epidemic processes for specified nosology in each territory has been demonstrated.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):187-191
pages 187-191 views

CERVICAL NEOPLASIA AND VIRUS LOAD OF HPV 16 GENOTYPE

Chirsky V.S., Ershov V.A., Vyazovaya A.A., Narvskaya O.V., Lyalina L.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The 83 biopsies from HPV16-positive cervical epithelial neoplasies were studied by cytological, histological, immunomorphological methods and PCR. At cervical ectopia virus loading changed from 2.49 up to 6.65 lg copies of DNA HPV/105. At CIN II and CIN III the quantity of a virus exceeded 4 lg copies of DNA HPV/105 of cells, at the CIN I, Ca in situ and SCC — 5 lg copies of DNA HPV/105 of cells. At progressing of neoplasia frequency of revealing of clinically significant parameters of virus loading correlated with increase in average values of nuclear perimeter of cells, associated with HPV. At ectopia and LSIL expression of capsid protein L1 testified about virus production. At HSIL and SCC at absence expression L1 HPV high parameters of virus load testified to infringement of life cycle papillomaviruses.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2014;4(2):192-196
pages 192-196 views

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