Vol 2, No 3 (2012)

LECTURES

INTERACTIONS OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA WITH INNATE IMMUNE REACTIONS OF HOST

Garib F.Y., Rizopulu A.P.

Abstract

Abstract. «Efficacy» of pathogens interaction with the immunity system is manifested by broad spreading of many bacterial infections including tuberculosis first of all and in activation of known and emergent pathogens. The refined mechanisms of avoiding of bacteria from recognizing by immune system as creation of obstacles for phagocytosis and intracellular killing, using of secretory systems like “syringe” for inoculation into host cells deregulated substances, suppression or enhancing of inflammatory response, activation of inhibitory receptors to suppress respiratory explosion in phagosome, decreasing of synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines by influences to inflammasomes, stimulation of cytokines production suppres sed of innate response, damage of key molecules on intracellular signal routes, manipulation with apoptosis and auto phagia with the aim of surviving and replication inside the host cells, blocking of processing and presentation of bacterial antigens have been evolutionary developed. The study of interaction between host and parasite allows to understand new facts characterized “logic of live being” on the pathogen level and to use their mechanisms of evasion for resolving of actual problems raised in human society, for example, development of original vaccines and principally new drugs for immune system correction in case of diseases such as oncogenic tumors, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as infectious diseases which are difficult to prevent and treat. Moreover, it was proved that permanent interaction with microorganisms including pathogenic ones is useful for human being because bacterial substances “train” immune system of people and assist its evolutionary improvement.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):581-596
pages 581-596 views

REVIEW ARTICLES

SAPOSIN-LIKE PROTEINS IN ANTI-INFECTIOUS IMMUNE RESPONSE

Yeremeev V.V., Apt A.S.

Abstract

Abstract. Besides the multiple hydrolytic enzymes, lysosomes are equipped with proteins apt to activate sphyngo-lipids — saposins (SAP). SAP belong to a broad and diverse family of moderate-size (~80 AA) saposin-like proteins (SAPLIP) containing specific domains with three disulfid e bonds bridging six cysteine residues. The diversity of SAPLIPS is likely explained by their involvement in distinct phases of engulfed bacteria digesting. Functionally similar SAPLIP were identified in a wide range of species — from amoeba to mammals, including humans. Saposins per se form a subfamily with six members: saposins A-D and the protein GM2 which possesses activatory functions. SAP do not have enzymatic activity, are heat-stable and protease resistant. The major in vivo function of SAP is released via participation in sphyngolipid catabolism and membrane digestion. In addition, complex association of SAP with membrane bi-layer and CD1 glycolipids is essential for loading lipid antigens onto antigen-presenting CD1 molecules for subsequent activation of lipid-specific T-cells. Of particular interest is participation of SAP in cross-presentation of bacterial antigens to CD8+ T-cells. A broad spectrum of SAP and SAPLIP involvement in the reactions of innate and adaptive immunity indicates their evolutionary conserved role in host defense.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):597-602
pages 597-602 views

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS GENOTYPING FOR EVOLUTIONARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Mokrousov I.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Current genome evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is marked by virtual absence of the lateral gene transfer leading to the clonal population of this species consisting of separate genetic families. Standard typing method of M. tuberculosis (IS6110-RFLP, spoligo- and VNTR-typing) are based on variation of mobile and repetitive elements and provide sufficient strain discrimination for epidemiological purposes such as, estimation of recent transmission versus reactivation of latent tuberculosis, laboratory contamination, mixed infection. At the same time, rapid evolution of some markers may lead to emergence of identical profiles in the non-related strains (homoplasy) due to convergent evolution. Use of different independent markers may help solve this problem. Regularly updated databases are available for global and local analysis and are also important for standardised terminology and designation of the genotypes. Some of the M. tuberculosis genetic families continue to circulate in the limited areas while other families have become omnipresent due to their likely increased transmissibility and pathogeneicity (e.g., Beijing and LAM). The most frequently isolated Russian subvariant Beijing B0/W148 is marked by significantly higher population growth compared to the Russian Beijing population as a whole and hence may be defined as a successful clone in Russia. Recent years revealed higher than previously thought level of genome variation in M. tuberculosis even between related isolates. The whole-genome sequencing may become a useful typing method if its cost is reduced to be similar to that of the traditional typing methods. Accumulation of the data on old and new markers, development and use of new algorithms of their analysis will help to refine our knowledge about evolution of M. tuberculosis and its families, will provide better tools for epidemiological monitoring of the circulating strains on local and global scale.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):603-614
pages 603-614 views

MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOGENICITY OF COXIELLA BURNETII

Panpherova Y.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The agent of Q-fever Coxiella burnetii is unusual intracellular pathogen which is possessed of biggest transporting and metabolic abilities in compare with microorganisms with similar parasitic strategy. It is supposed that different strains of the pathogen exist in various stages of pathological adaption and have different potential of virulence. The structure of C. burnetii genome, characteristics of metabolic routes, mechanisms of interaction with host cells and possible virulence factors are discussed in the review. The special attention is paid to Coxiella genotyping methods and possible correlations between genomic polymorphism of different strains and their virulence potential.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):615-626
pages 615-626 views

LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES: SPREADING AND MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE

Antoshina I.F., Mezentseva M.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (LM) the causative agent of listeriosis is one of the pathogens entering to the human organism by food products. The listeriosis is one of the oldest experimental infection and LM is the classic object for study of cell immunity mechanisms. It was established that virulent bacteria L. monocytogenes induce infected immune cells to avoid own protective response. The authors conducted experiments to study changes in immune response indicators in mice in the different stages of infection (during 3–5 days) caused by L. monocytogenes EGDe (wt) strain and bacteria of isogeneic strains with mutations in genes controlled production of PAMPs (d28, i28). Analysis of published data and obtained results of this study allows to make a conclusion that immune response in listeriosis plays an important role and it depends on pathogen strain, bacteria doses and another condition of infection. Conducted study can be useful in case of choosing of treatment tactic of disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and, probable another diseases, caused by intracellular bacteria.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):627-634
pages 627-634 views

IMMUNITY OF EYE-BULBE AND CONJUNCTIVE MICROFLORA

Kochergin S.A., Tchernakova G.M., Klescheva E.A., Shapoval I.M., Mezentseva M.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The modern data concerning peculiarities of immune reactions in eye-bulbe tissues in general are presented in the article. The aspects of immune response (including cytokines system) in different eye pathologies are highlighted. The existing data on normal and pathogenic microflora of conjunctive and its possible influence on immune processes in eye-bulbe are summarized.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):635-644
pages 635-644 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

POLYPRENYL PHOSPHATES AS ADJUVANTS, POLARIZING THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO Th1

Pronin A.V., Ozherelkov S.V., Deyeva A.V., Sanin A.V., Narovljansky A.N.

Abstract

Abstract. The attempts to decrease a toxic action of Freund complete adjuvant have led to development of new emulsion adjuvant compositions. More often they are based on metabolizable oil (squalene) with addition the Tween 80 (Polisorbate 80) as an emulsifier. The third component is an immunomodulator. Adjuvants, intended for prevention of virus infections, should include the immunomodulators polarizing the immune response to Th1. From this point of view adjuvant based on a colloidal solution prepared by means of the Tween 80 from polyprenyl phasphates of fir needles (Phosprenyl) can be rather perspective. The last one, as well as squalene, is constructed by isoprene links, but has them not 6, but 16 that essentially reduces its toxicity. The obtained data shows that Phosprenyl essentially enhances efficiency of vaccination in such virus infections as tick born encephalitis, bird flu, poliomyelitis and polarizes the immune response to Th1.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):645-650
pages 645-650 views

EPIDEMIOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRENATAL INFECTION

Dolgih T.I., Shelev M.V., Tirskaya J.I., Belkova T.N.

Abstract

Abstract. To improve diagnostics of prenatal infections the basic obstetrics indices in Omsk region in the period of 2000–2010 years have been analyzed. It was found that perinatal mortality reduced 2.5 times (from 14.5 till 5.7 per 1000 newborns) as well as neonatal mortality (from 6.5 till 0.9 per 1000 newborns). The laboratory testing of 187 newborns (85 pairs mother-newborn) revealed monoinfection in 24% of cases and mixed infection in 7% of cases with predomination of herpes viruses (HHV-6, CMV, EBV, HSV1,2). Newborns with manifested infections had increased number of cytotoxic T-cells, intensive expression of HLA-DR antigens on monocytes and IL-8 chemokine increased production.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):651-656
pages 651-656 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

DOSE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES ISOLATED FROM GM-CSF ACTIVE CENTER

Zurochka A.V., Suhovei Y.G., Zurochka V.A., Dobrynina M.A., Kostolomova E.G., Kolobov A.A., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

Abstract. Several endogenic and synthetic peptides were investigated in order to reveal their antibacterial activity. The study of dose-depended effects of antibacterial activity of the immunotropic peptide ZP-2, which is included in GM-CSF active center, shown significant antibacterial activity of ZP-2 by action range and by rate of bactericidal activity in case of low concentration. Combined application of substance derived from supernatant of CD34+CD45-cells and synthetic peptide ZP-2 enhances significantly actions of each other. Probably, this effect is connected with various mechanisms of their influence on bacteria. The obtained facts indicate that synthetic peptide has not only immunostimulating action but it also promotes a direct antibacterial activity. These data support an idea that synthetic peptides have good perspectives in case of development new antibacterial drugs with unique characteristics.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):657-660
pages 657-660 views

THE STUDY OF FREE RADICAL PROCESSES AND THE CONTENT OF CYTOKINES IN LIVER ECHINOCOCCOSIS

Zanginyan H.V., Ghazaryan G.S., Hovsepyan L.M.

Abstract

Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the activity of lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of proteins, determination of nitric oxide in relation to the content of cytokines in hepatic echinococcosis in humans before and after surgical intervention. Our data suggest that in the development of the pathogenesis of echinococcosis the activation of free radical reactions as well as increase in nitric oxide and cytokines play certain role.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):661-664
pages 661-664 views

THE OUTBREAK OF PARVOVIRAL INFECTION IN THE TERRITORY OF NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF RUSSIA

Spiridonova L.A., Antipova A.Y., Lavrentieva I.N., Bichurina M.A., Surkova V.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The results of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory investigation of outbreak of exanthemic infection occurred in the Lomonosov district of Leningrad oblast in May, 2012 are presented in this article. The clinical diagnosis of parvoviral infection was laboratory confirmed by specific IgM antibodies detection in patients’ sera by ELISA. It is emphasized the importance of virological monitoring for viral infections on the stage of measles elimination and sporadic level of rubella cases.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2012;2(3):665-668
pages 665-668 views

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