Vol 1, No 4 (2011)

REVIEW ARTICLES

USING OF MOUSE MODEL TO ANALYZE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO INFECTIOUS PATHOGENS BY THE METHODS OF CLASSICAL GENETICS

Poltorak A.

Abstract

Abstract. Identification and studying of numerous functions of all genes of the human beings is one of the main objects of modern biological science. Due to high level of homology between mouse and human genomes the important role to reach above mentioned goal belongs to the mouse model which using in the classical genetics increase in connection with appearance of different inbred mouse lines. For instance, the differences in immune response to infectious pathogens in various mouse lines were used many times to determine immunologically competent genes. That is why the contribution of mouse model in understanding of the mechanisms of immune response to infectious pathogens is difficult to overestimate. In the current review some of the most successful and well known examples of mouse using in studies of anti-infectious response are described.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):293-302
pages 293-302 views

DIVERSITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE MECHANISMS IN SALMONELLA

Kaftyreva L.A., Egorova S.A., Makarova M.A., Zabrovskaya A.V., Matveeva Z.N., Suzhaeva L.V., Voitenkova E.V.

Abstract

Abstract. Current review presents information on the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella of various serotypes. The phenotypes of resistance and the main resistance mechanisms to the antimicrobials of various groups are described. Comparison data on the resistance to antimicrobials of Salmonella serological variants, which circulate worldwide including the Russian Federation (S. Typhimurium DT104, S. Newport, S. Virchow, S. Enteritidis) are shown. Moreover, epidemiological characteristics of transmission factors related to these pathogens are discussed. Special attention is given to genetic determinants, which encode the resistance of Enterobacteriaceae, as well as mobile genetic elements (integrons, plasmids, pathogenicity islands), which are involved in the spread of resistance.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):303-310
pages 303-310 views

HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

Smolskaya T.T., Ogurtsova S.V.

Abstract

Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR) in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):311-318
pages 311-318 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

ECOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TICK-BORN ENCEPHALITIS AND TICK BORRELIOSIS (THE LIME DISEASE) IN KALININGRAD OBLAST

Tokarevich N.K., Tronin A.A., Seljuk V.N., Grunicheva T.P., Babura E.A.

Abstract

Abstract. Results of monitoring of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and tick borreliosis (TB) in the western enclave of Russia in Kaliningrad oblast in 1999-2008 are presented in the article. The number of basic vector of the agents of these infections — I. ricinus during the analyzing period in the territory of Kurshskaya spit increased. The number of tick attacked persons in the oblast also increased. Despite these events the TBE incidence rates remained not so high and have tendency to decrease. At the same time the TB morbidity has moderate trend to increase. The link between increase of average annual air temperature and incidence of "tick" infections was not proved for the studying period of time. The people of pre-pension and pension ages living in cities more often suffer from TBE and TB. The most part of patients are exposed to tick attack during visiting of rest places. It was determined that eastern districts of Kaliningrad oblast are more problematic on "tick" infections.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):319-330
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APPLICATION OF MODERN STATISTICAL METHODS TO ASSESS THE INTERACTION OF THE INTERFERON STATUS OF FULL-TERM NEONATAL INFANT AND HIS MOTHER

Selkov S.A., Koroleva L.I., Tishkov A.V., Anikin V.B., Khromov-Borisov N.N.

Abstract

Abstract. The analysis of the IFN-status of healthy full-term neonatal infants and their healthy mothers with modern statistical methods was conducted. It was established that the IFN status of healthy full-term neonatal infants differs from the same of their mothers with higher occurrence of IFNs and strengthened induced production of IFNα/β and IFNγ. The statistically significant interaction between indicators of the IFN status of newborns and their mothers has been revealed. The obtained data is important for assessment of nonspecific resistance in system mother–newborn.

 

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):331-340
pages 331-340 views

DRUG RESISTANCE, VIABILITY AND VIRULENCE IN VITRO ОF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES

Manicheva O.A., Narvskaya O.V., Mokrousov I.V., Vyazovaya A.A., Zhuravlev V.U., Barnaulov A.O., Dogonadze M.Z., Otten T.F., Vishnevskiy B.I.

Abstract

Abstract. The drug resistance, mutation spectrum caused resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, viability, cytotoxicity were studied as well as 111 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) were genotyped. Spoligotyping revealed 28 spoligotypes; the greatest number of strains belonged to genetic families Beijing and LAM. The typing of 59 strains of spoligotype SIT1 (Beijing) allowed to differentiate 19 variants of IS6110-RFLP-profiles: 13 of them were individual and 6 were presented by clusters. The clusters А0 and В0 included the greatest number of M. tuberculosis strains — 21 (35,6%) and 17 (28,8%) accordingly. The high frequency of MLU and SLU of Beijing strains was associated with mutations rpoB Ser531→Leu and katG Ser315→Thr. The strains of M. tuberculosis belonged to another genetic families (T, H, Ural, U) have shown drug resistance more often. The level of resistance to isoniazid in vitro in MLU/SLU strains of MBT of different genotypes, especially, was high in case of mixed mutations such as katG Ser315→Thr и inhA_T15. The rates of viability and cytotoxicity of MBT strains of studied genotypes with different spectrum of mutations and phenotypic drug resistance were not substantially distinguished.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):341-348
pages 341-348 views

CLINICAL TRIAL OF THE PANDEMIC INFLUENZA MONOVALENT VACCINE PANDEFLU

Erofeeva M.K., Maksakova V.L., Nickonorov I.Y., Pozdnyakova M.G., Kotova O.S., Okhapkina E.A., Evgrafov V.D., Voicehovskaya E.M., Vasilyeva A.A., Stukova M.A., Bushmenkov D.S., Romanova A.A., Kiselev O.I.

Abstract

Abstract. Evaluation of reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of the inactivated subunit influenza vaccine adsorbed monovalent (Pandeflu) on the base of strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) was conducted in 70 volunteers aged 18–60 years immunized by one or two doses. A clinical trial of the vaccine Pandeflu was conducted in the St.Petersburg Institute of Influenza. The study group included 38 women (54,3%) and 32 men (45,7%). The average age of women was 38.2 years, men — 26.9 years, mean age of all volunteers was equal to 31.7 years. This group of volunteers was randomized in 2 subgroups. The first subgroup of 50 volunteers was vaccinated with Pandeflu, but the second one of 20 volunteers was given a placebo. The strong and moderate local and systemic reactions were not observed. All local (6 volunteers) and systemic (6 volunteers) reactions were recorded after ithout any medical care. It proves the good tolerability and low reactogenicity of vaccine Pandeflu. Indicators of clinical and biochemical blood tests, a general analysis of urine during the study period were within normal limits. In the study of the immunogenicity it has been shown that after a single injection of vaccine the first vaccination. All these reactions were mild and transient and disappeared wPandeflu the seroconversion rate reached 68%, but the level of seroprotection was 52%. The multiplication factor of the geometric mean antibody titer increase in serum reached a value of 5.8. Conducting of immunization with two doses of vaccine with the interval of 28 days increases the immunogenicity: the level of seroconversion rate increases up to 96%, but the level of seroprotection – up to 74%, seroconversion factor – up to 10.8. These data confirm high immunogenic potential vaccine in case of single dose as well as double doses administration.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):349-354
pages 349-354 views

PHOSPHORILATED POLYPRENOLS — A NOVEL CLASS OF COMPOUNDS WITH ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND BRONCHIAL SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY

Sanin A.V., Ganshina I.V., Sudiyna G.F., Sanina V.Y., Kozhevnikova T.N., Pronin A.V., Narovlyanskiy A.N., Sukhanova S.A., Proskurina O.V., Mitrokhin N.M.

Abstract

Abstract. Phosphorilated polyprenols (PP) isolated from different sources are known to exert immunomodulating and antiviral activities. In this paper possible anti-inflammatory action of PP were studied using sensitive models of 5-lypoxigenase and 15-lypoxigenase activity inhibition, as well as a model of the hypostasis induced by the complete Freundt’s adjuvant, or carraginan. Also in vitro model of bronchospasm was used to study prospective broncholytic activity of PP. The latter was found to exert dose-dependent inhibitory effect upon both 5-lypoxigenase and 15-lypoxigenase activity. In the suspension cell culture significant inhibitory effect of PP upon leukotriens production was found even at a concentration of 5 mcg/ml; at concentration of 100 mkg/ml activity of the enzyme was suppressed almost to zero. In neutrophil cells cultivated on a collagenic substrate the significant inhibitory effect was also found at the concentration of 5 mcg/ml; 20 mcg/ml of PP reduced 5-LOX activity approximately 20-fold. In another protocol PP significantly inhibited 15-LOX activity. Thus, PP may be regarded as active inhibitor of both lipoxygenases. The PP exerted anti-inflammatory activity at both models of hypostasis, though it was weaker compared with indomethacin. Also PP was found to possess broncholytic activity in vitro in the bronchospasm model. Taking into account early established findings proving that PP may function as a physiological counterregulator of MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, our data prove that PP possess anti-inflammatory and broncholytic activities, which might be used for development of novel drugs for preventive care and treatment of bronchial asthma, inflammatory diseases and other pathologies.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):355-360
pages 355-360 views

IMMUNOMODULATORS IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS TREATMENT

Toptygina A.P., Bobyleva G.V., Alioshkin V.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The immune status and the level of specific antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (121 patients) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (129 patients) were tested in 250 patients aged 19–56 years old. This cohort was divided for three groups. Seventy eight patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and normal rates of other parameters of immune status were jointed in Group 1. The second group was presented by 85 patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ and high level of CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. Eighty seven patients with lymphopenia were distinguished in Group 3. All patients were treated with antiviral or antibacterial and immunomodulatory drugs. Three schemes of immunomodulatory therapy including imunofanum, polyoxidonium, cycloferonum, glutoxim, immunomax in different combination were used. In three weeks after treatment in 72,4% of patients no clinical symptoms as well as normalization of immune status indices and decrease of specific antibodies titers were observed. Sixty nine patients reported improvement of subjective health status, however they had high level of specific antibodies. Immunological examination of these patients after second course of immunomodulatory therapy confirmed their convalescence. It was shown that the condition of immune status determines effect of the different immunomodulators.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):361-366
pages 361-366 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

CYTOKINES AS MARKERS OF THE INFILTRATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS DEVELOPMENT

Mezentseva M.V., Stakhanov V.A., Zakharova M.V., Zotova I.F., Tregubova M.I., Shapoval I.M.

Abstract

Abstract. Many parts of immune system are involved in interaction of M. tuberculosis and human organism. There are some publications concerning significance of interferon and other cytokines in lung tuberculosis. Our research group investigated condition of interferon and cytokines systems in patients with firstly detected infiltrative lung tuberculosis. The results of this study have shown direct links between clinical and immunological efficacy of the complex treatment of such patients. The active expression of IL-6 gene correlates with slow dynamics of lung infiltrate resolution and long saving of patient’s complaint for respiratory tract symptoms during the treatment. The expression of IL-12 gene linked to small volume of infiltrates in lung tissue before treatment whereas expression of IL-1β gene correlates with decrease of intoxication time and respiratory symptoms in patients during therapy. The knowledge about violation in cytokine regulation parts is absolutely necessary to determine dynamics of diseases development and treatment efficacy as well as to use immunotherapy.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):367-372
pages 367-372 views

SIGNIFICANCE OF IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN PATHOGENESIS OF SOME ACUTE AND CHRONIC VIRAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Ivanis V.A., Markelova E.V., Sklyar L.F.

Abstract

Abstract. In the last years immunological aspects are studying in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The influence of immune response to the infectious processes of acute and chronic virus infectious (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Chronic Viral Hepatitis C, as an example) has been revealed. Misbalance of system and local cytokine status characterizes the direct influence of immune system to all organs and systems of human organism. It determines the severity of the disease and its outcomes.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):373-377
pages 373-377 views

CHRONICLE

Editorial

Abstract

Аналитический обзор XIV Всероссийского научного форума с международным участием имени академика В.И. Иоффе «Дни иммунологии в Санкт-Петербурге» (23–26 мая 2011 г.).

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2011;1(4):378-380
pages 378-380 views

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