Cytokines and neuro-specific proteins in viral encephalitis and convulsive syndrome in children. II. Convulsive syndrome

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In this Section we provide new data on the pathogenetic factors in pediatric convulsive syndrome, including a prominent role of viral infection in developing seizures and epilepsy (EPL) in children, as evidenced by clinical and experimental studies. Various forms of convulsive syndrome associated with viral infection include febrile convulsions and febrile epileptic status, encephalitis-related acute symptomatic seizures, and postencephalitic epilepsy. The human herpesvirus-6 isolated in temporal lobe epilepsy is a frequent causative agent of febrile seizures and febrile epileptic status. Febrile seizures and, especially, febrile epileptic status are associated with further developing epilepsy. Of special note is the febrile infection-related epileptic syndrome (FIRES) more often affecting school-aged children and characterized by extremely severe course and unfavorable outcome. Convulsive syndrome is associated with systemic inflammation and overproduced pro-inflammatory cytokines that increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier and functional activity of brain-resident cells, which are involved in eliciting seizures and maintaining epileptogenesis. Taking into consideration the key role of inflammation underlying convulsive syndrome, in recent decades cytokines and chemokines have been widely studied as possible prognostic criteria for epileptogenesis. Neuron-specific proteins are examined as markers of brain cell damage in various inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The first Section of the review presented current understanding on systemic and local cytokine/chemokine response in viral encephalitis. Here we present clinical trials published within the last 5—7 years assessing cytokines/chemokines and neuron-specific proteins in children with various forms of convulsive syndrome, including epilepsy. Association between biomarker level and disease clinical parameters as well as potential for their use to diagnose and predict its further course are discussed.

About the authors

L. A. Alekseeva

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases


PhD, MD (Biology), Head and Leading Researcher of the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases under the Federal Medical Biological Agency (PRCCID).

197002, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popova str., 9.

Russian Federation

G. F. Zheleznikova

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases

Author for correspondence.

Galina F. Zheleznikova - PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Senior Researcher, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, PRCCID.

197002, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popova str., 9.

Phone: +7 905 267-41-32 (mobile)

Russian Federation

E. Y. Gorelik

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3130-1717

PhD (Medicine), Researcher, Department of Neuroinfection and Organic Pathology of the Nervous System, PRCCID.

197002, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popova str., 9.

Russian Federation

N. V. Sckripchenko

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases; St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8927-3176

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Deputy Director of Science, PRCCID; Head of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Postgraduate and Continuing Professional Education, St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia.

197002, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popova str., 9.

Russian Federation

A. A. Zhirkov

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7720-2175

Junior Researcher, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, PRCCID.

197002, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popova str., 9.

Russian Federation


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Copyright (c) 2020 Alekseeva L.A., Zheleznikova G.F., Gorelik E.Y., Sckripchenko N.V., Zhirkov A.A.

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