Vol 6, No 3 (2016)



Zarubaev V.V., Anikin V.B., Smirnov V.S.


Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA) and glycirrhizic (GA) acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component of a complex antiviral therapy. A combination of antiviral mechanisms makes GA and GLA unique means capable of providing an antiviral effect in many types of viral pathologies that emphasizes their prospects as a component of comprehensive antiviral therapy. Further research in the field of optimization of their application may lead to the development of new antiviral drugs and effective schemes of their combined application.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):199-206
pages 199-206 views


Filatova E.N., Anisenkova E.V., Presnyakova N.B., Sycheva T.D., Kulova E.A., Utkin O.V.


Acute infectious mononucleosis is a widespread viral disease, which most often manifests in childhood. The development of acute infectious mononucleosis is accompanied by the change of the CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes ratio and the increase of the virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes number. One of the T-lymphocytes number regulation mechanisms is the modulation of their progenitor cells apoptosis. The death receptor CD95 takes part in the regulation of T-lymphocytes apoptosis, including naïve T-cells. We studied the effect of CD95 receptor activation on apoptosis of naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes in healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis. In this study children with acute infectious mononucleosis at the age of 9 to 16 years were included. For comparison healthy children of the same age with no clinical and laboratory signs of the disease were used. Naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were isolated by negative magnetic immunoseparation. The analysis of naïve T-cells apoptosis and the CD95 receptor surface expression density was performed by using the flow cytometry analysis. The analysis of T-cells was performed in three variants: freshly isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and also cells after 24 hours of the cultivation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibodies or without them. In healthy children both CD95– and CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes underwent apoptosis. In children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes lost their susceptibility to apoptosis induction. In healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were resistant to apoptosis in contrast to CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes. In healthy children CD95 receptor did not induce apoptosis of isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes. In children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95 receptor was involved in inhibition of apoptosis of naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes and did not effect on the level of apoptosis of naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes. We suggest that CD95-dependent suppression of naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes apoptosis is a protective mechanism for the maintenance of a sufficient number of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the blood for the realization of effective antiviral immune response.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):207-218
pages 207-218 views


Lavrentyeva I.N., Antipova A.Y., Bichurina M.A., Nikishov O.N., Zheleznova N.V., Kuzin A.A.


The drastic decrease of the incidence of Measles and Rubella at the stage of elimination of these infections is notified on the territory of North- Western Federal Region (NWFR) of Russia. At the same time the number of cases with the error clinical diagnosis of Measles and Rubella increased. The most frequent error is the infection caused by Parvovirus (PVI). The disease is of the independent particular medical and social significance for obstetrics, maternity and childhood protection, blood donation service, transplantation of organs/tissue etc. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR of Russia in different periods of 2009–2012 and 2015–2016. The data of the laboratory diagnosis of PVI for patients with exanthema were analyzed. Materials and methods. The serum specimens of patients with exanthema from bank of sera of St. Petersburg Subnational Measles/Rubella laboratory, collected in 2009–2012 (n = 495) and in 2015 (n = 336) as well as 69 sera of patients with exanthema from the “Infectious Disease Hospital N30” in St. Petersburg, collected in March-May, 2016 were studied. The specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies were determined by the «recomWELL Parvovirus B19 IgM» (MICROGEN GmbH, Germany) ELISA test-system. The presen ce of the specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies in sera of patients was the evidence of the acute PVI. Results. The obtained results demonstrated the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR. In 2009–2012 as well as in 2015 years PVI was revealed on the overwhelming majority (9 of 11) of administrative territories of the NWFR. The essential predominance of PVI was determined in St. Petersburg and bordering territories of NWFR (Kaliningrad Oblast’, Leningrad Oblast’, Republic of Karelia). In 2010, 2011 and 2015 years the part of sera detected as IgM-PV B19 positive on an average was equal to 14%. Meanwhile in 2012 the part of the detected IgM-PV B19 positive sera was statistically higher (p < 0.05) and consisted 45.5% of those tested in St. Petersburg Subnational Measles/Rubella laboratory. According to the results obtained the epidemical increase of PVI incidence was observed on the territory of NWFR in 2012. Among the cases with the laboratory confirmed PVI (i.e. IgM-PV B19 positive sera) the part of cases with the error clinical diagnosis of Rubella consisted 56.2% in 2012 and 34.0% in 2015. Comparing the initial clinical diagnosis of patients from the “Infectious Di sease Hospital N 30” in St. Petersburg in March-May, 2016, with the results of IgM-PV B19 ELISA of sera we revealed that none of patients with the laboratory confirmed PVI had the initial clinical diagnosis PVI at the stage of hospitalization. Thus the results obtained evidence the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR; clinical diagnosis of PVI turns to be the problem for clinicians; the differential diagnosis of PVI with Rubella is necessary and of extremely importance at the stage of elimination of Measles and Rubella in Russia.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):219-224
pages 219-224 views


Sokolova E.D., Galtaeva A.M., Zamurei O.U., Didichenko O.V., Sokolova U.V., Muratova V.A., Ligorova O.U., Zhuravleva I.N., Makarova M.A., Kaftyreva L.A.


The aim of the study is estimate the opportunities of local multi-prime PCR reagents kits in children enteric infections etiological diagnostics amongst the patients with diarrhoea vs traditional bacteriological methods. We used 4 kits of reagents that provide multiple pathogens simultaneous indication in one sample: 1) Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus; 2) Shigella spp./EIEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.; 3) Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; 4) E. coli: EIEC (enteroinvasive), EPEC (enteropathogenic), ETEC (enterotoxigenic), EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic), EAgEC (enteroaggregative). It has been shown that the viral intestinal infections is increased by 14%, bacterial — in 2,5 times. PCR diagnostics identified in 62% of patients the viral gastroenteritis: Rotavirus (52%), Norovirus (9%), Astrovirus (1%). Detected bacterial pathogens PCR markers number proved up to 2.5 times high than according to bacteriological examination. The spectrum of bacterial agents increased due to E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. PCR diagnostics increased detection of Campylobacter up to 2 times. Detected E. coli DNA prevalence: EPEC — 66%, EAgEC, ETEC and EHEC were 31%, 9% and 4%, respectively. DNA Campylobacter spp. and E. coli constituted 2/3 of all findings: Campylobacter spp. (41%), E. coli (24%), Salmonella spp. (19%), Yersinia spp. (11%), Shigella spp./EIEC (5%). The positive results of bacteriological and serological methods duplicate the positive results of PCR diagnostics. In general, the positive results of PCR diagnosis of bacterial pathogens were detected in 46.35% of the examined patients. In 48.4% of patients identified PCR markers viral — bacterial infection, in 5.25% — of bacterial associations, in 11% of them were found the DNA 2–3 bacterial pathogens. The study was shown in children in St. Petersburg in 2012–2014 dominated rotavirus infection, campylobacteriosis and escherichiosis. The prevalence of viral-bacterial confections is more than 50% of all diagnosed cases.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):225-231
pages 225-231 views



Rybka A.G.


The paper confirms long-time opisthorhis invasion role as a risk factor of host immune system reconstitution as well as an important factor in holangiocarcinomas development. It was shown that opisthorhosis invasion primal stage induce host immune system reconstitution. Host immune B-cells system is activated by metacercaria antigens, while the same antigens inhibits T-cells activity. Opisthorhis metabolites stimulate proliferative mithogen-induced T-cells acti vity. Chronic opisthorchis invasion leads to immune system disbalance. It means: decrease of specific and non-speci fic natural killers activity, number of high proliferative activity T-lymphocytes and the shift of regulatory T-cells subset to suppressors prevalence. At the same time specific as well as non-specific T-suppressors functional ability is very low. It was shown T-cells helper-amplifier activation. Despite of circulating B-cells decrease the antibody produced cells number is spleen increases significantly at the same time with circulating immune complexes accumulation. Even 3–6 month after dehelmintisation the immune system disbalance decreases but lefts. In addition, chronic opisthorhis invasion leads to the proliferative processes activation in ductal epithelium, liver, lymph nodes and in other organs which leads to cancer proliferation. According to the results obtained the opisthorhis infected patients needs to be immunocorrected before as well as after dehelmintisation for holangiocancerogenesis profylaxis.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):232-236
pages 232-236 views


Proceedings of the II National congress of bacteriologists «Current status and trends in the development of infectious diseases laboratory diagnostics»


Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):238-303
pages 238-303 views

Instructions to Authors


Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):304-306
pages 304-306 views

Author index


Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(3):307-308
pages 307-308 views

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