Clinical characteristics of foodborne botulism in the southern region of the Kyrgyz Republic

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The main factors of botulism transmission are identified as home-canned products (vegetable salads, fruit compotes, seaberry jam), pickled cucumbers and tomatoes. Botulism proceeds clinically as moderate-to-severe disease. High prevalence of type A and untypeable C. botulinum toxins along with type B species in the southern region accounts for its severe course. In our study, clinical manifestations of botulism were presented by moderate and severe clinical picture in 72.3% (47 patients) and 27.7% (18 patients) cases. No mild forms of the disease were diagnosed. Length of incubation period in examined patients on average was 13.6 hours. Upon that, a short incubation period was observed after consumption of canned fruit compote and sea buckthorn jam, cucumbers and tomatoes (16 subjects) or canned vegetables (38 subjects) on average ranging from 4 to 8 hours, 8 hours to 1 day, or 15 hours to 1.5 days, respectively. All subjects were featured with acute onset manifested as general intoxication and gastrointestinal syndromes. The former was characterized by headache, dizziness, and severe general weakness. Subfebrile temperature (37.1–37.5°C) was noted in patients with a short incubation period. Such syndrome in case of moderate disease course was also characterized by moderate severity in 70.2±6.7% cases, with acute appearance in 29.8±6.9% cases; in severe course it was featured with extremely severe course (100%), and in one case it resulted in lethal outcome. Intensity and persistence of neurological disorders clearly correlated with the disease severity, which pointed at its progression. Upon admission to the hospital, patients noted moderate and marked dry mouth in 63.1±5.9% and 36.9±5.9% cases, respectively. Ophthalmoplegic syndrome was characterized by: doubling of object contours, diplopia, limited eye movement, mydriasis, lethargy or lack of pupillary reaction to light, anisocoria, and ptosis. Phagonazoglossoneurological syndrome was early manifested by swallowing problem. Next, tongue deviation, amimia, flattened nasolabial fold, and soft palate paresis were added up. Phonolaryngology syndrome was evident depending on disease severity in a form of varying intensity of dysphonia and dysarthria. Syndrome of general myoneuroplegia was characterized by lowered strength in hands and feet.

About the authors

S. T. Salieva

Osh Interregional Joint Clinical Hospital;
Osh State University, Faculty of Medicine

Author for correspondence.

Salieva Sabira T., Resident Physician, Osh Interregional Joint Clinical Hospital; PhD Student, Medical Faculty, Osh State University

714000, Osh, Lenin str., 331


S. T. Zholdoshev

Osh Interregional Joint Clinical Hospital;
Osh State University, Faculty of Medicine

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3922-6659

PhD, MD (Medicine), Osh Interregional Joint Clinical Hospital; Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Medical Faculty, Osh State University




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Copyright (c) 2020 Salieva S.T., Zholdoshev S.T.

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