Epidemiological and etiological aspects of enterovirus infection in Russia and Vietnam

Cover Page

Cite item

Abstract

The epidemic situation and etiological factors of enterovirus infection in Russia and Vietnam were analysed and compared. The identified strains of enteroviruses of 47 types, which circulated in Russia in 2018–2019, belonged to different species: Enterovirus species A (CV-A2, CV-A4, CV-A6, CV-A8, CV-A10, CV-A16, EV-A71), as well as Enterovirus species B and Enterovirus species C. The strains isolated from 87 children from southern Vietnam hospitalised in 2018–2019 into infectious hospitals while having enterovirus infection with exanthema were also studied. All identified strains were represented by Enterovirus species A: EV-A71 — 59 strains, CV-A10 — 20 strains, CV-A16 — 5 strains, CV-A6 — two strains and CV-A2 — one strain. Out of 59 viruses EV-A71, 53 strains belonged to genotype C4 and 6 strains belonged to genotype B5. The sequences of EV-A71 strains of genotype C4 from South Vietnam formed a monophyletic cluster with the sequences of EV-A71 viruses which circulated during 2016–2018 in different provinces of China, and they were very close to EV-A71 strains of the same genotype from the Yunnan Province. These strains were genetically different from Russian viruses and Vietnamese viruses identified in the years 2003–2005 and 2011– 2012. Most of the cases of enterovirus infection from southern Vietnam (78%) caused by EV-A71 virus of genotype C4 were reported in three provinces located in southern Vietnam in the Mekong Delta. The epidemic process and the etiology of enterovirus infection in Russia and Vietnam have common features. At the same time, the epidemic situation in these countries is not the same. The incidence of enterovirus infection is influenced by geographic, climatic, economic and demographic factors that differ in two countries. In the majority of territories of Russia, the climate is temperate or cold, seasonal rises in the incidence rates of enterovirus infection usually occur in the summer, when people go on vacation, spend a lot of time outdoors and swim in open reservoirs. In Vietnam, a constant high-level temperature, a high population density and a large proportion of children determine the higher incidence of enterovirus infection, especially in the southern provinces of Vietnam, compared to Russia. The fact that more than 20% of the Vietnamese population lives in the Mekong Delta, which is the largest river in Indochina, has a significant impact on the epidemic process of enterovirus infection in South Vietnam. The Mekong River which flows through China, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, and carries huge streams of water, including rainstorm waters and sewages, from all of these countries into the southern provinces of Vietnam, which have the highest incidence rates of enterovirus infection in the country. The results of the research underline the importance of active epidemiological and virological surveillance of enterovirus infection, which plays the key role in informing the public health authorities about the changes in the epidemic situation in order to take appropriate measures and develop the prevention strategies. The goal of anti-epidemic and preventive measures is to reduce the incidence of enterovirus infection and the economic burden of this infection for Russia and Vietnam.

About the authors

N. I. Romanenkova

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Author for correspondence.
Email: romanenkova@pasteurorg.ru

Natalya I. Romanenkova,  PhD (Medicine), Senior Researcher, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Etiology and Control of Viral Infections 

197101, St. Petersburg, Mira str., 14

Phone: +7 (812) 233-21-56. Fax: +7 (812) 232-92-17 

Russian Federation

L. N. Golitsyna

Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: lyudmila_galitzina@mail.ru

PhD (Biology), Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

T. T. T. Nguyen

Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City

Email: tthao1103@yahoo.com

MD, Head of Enteroviruses Laboratory 

Ho Chi Minh City

Viet Nam

N. V. Ponomareva

Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mevirfc@rambler.ru

PhD (Biology), Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

A. V. Leonov

Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mevirfc@rambler.ru

Junior Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

O. I. Kanaeva

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: ol.kanaeva@gmail.com

Researcher, Laboratory of Etiology and Control of Viral Infections 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

V. V. Zverev

Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mevirfc@rambler.ru

PhD (Biology), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

S. G. Selivanova

Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mevirfc@rambler.ru

PhD (Biology), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

N. R. Rozaeva

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: rozaeva-n@mail.ru

PhD (Medicine), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Etiology and Control of Viral Infections 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

M. T. Luong

Russian-Vietnamese Tropical Research and Technology Center, South Branch

Email: luongmo@mail.ru

PhD (Chemistry), Head of Laboratory of Tropical Biomedicine 

Ho Chi Minh City

Viet Nam

M. A. Bichurina

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: romanenkova@pasteurorg.ru

PhD, MD (Medicine), Senior Researcher, Head of the Laboratory of Etiology and Control of Viral Infections 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

N. A. Novikova

Blokhina Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Nizhny Novgorod

Email: mevirfc@rambler.ru

PhD, MD (Biology), Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Infections 

Nizhny Novgorod

Russian Federation

References

  1. Бичурина М.А., Романенкова Н.И., Голицына Л.Н., Розаева Н.Р., Канаева О.И., Фомина С.Г., Крайнова Т.И., Шишко Л.А., Гордиенко Т.А., Пьяных В.А., Иванова Т.Г., Смелков С.Н., Лесникова М.В., Новикова Н.А. Роль энтеровируса ECHO30 в этиологии энтеровирусной инфекции на Северо-Западе России в 2013 году // Журнал инфектологии. 2014. Т. 6, № 3. С. 84–91. [Bichurina M.A., Romanenkova N.I., Golitsyna L.N., Rozaeva N.R., Kanaeva O.I., Fomina S.G., Krainova T.I., Shishko L.A., Gordienko T.A., Pianykh V.A., Ivanova T.G., Smelkov S.N., Lesnikova M.V., Novikova N.A. Role of Enterovirus ECHO 30 as the etiological agent of enterovirus infection in the North-West of Russia in 2013. Zhurnal infektologii = Journal Infectology, 2014, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 84–91. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.22625/2072-6732-2014-6-3-84-91
  2. Бичурина М.А., Романенкова Н.И., Новикова Н.А., Голицына Л.Н., Розаева Н.Р., Канаева О.И., Ермакова М.В., Камынина Л.С., Мадоян А.Г., Валдайцева Н.В., Леонова Н.П., Иванова Т.Г. Групповые заболевания энтеровирусной инфекцией, обусловленные вирусами Коксаки А16, на Северо-Западе России // Журнал микробиологии, эпидемиологии и иммунобиологии. 2014. № 2. С. 51–58. [Bichurina M.A., Romanenkova N.I., Novikova N.A., Golitsyna L.N., Rozaeva N.R., Kanaeva O.I., Ermakova M.V., Kamynina L.S., Madoyan A.G., Valdaitseva N.V., Leonova N.P., Ivanova T.G. Group enterovirus infection due to Coxsackievirus A16 in Northwestern Russia. Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunobiologii = Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunobiology, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 51–58. (In Russ.)]
  3. Голицына Л.Н., Зверев В.В., Парфенова Н.В., Епифанова Н.В., Сашина Т.А., Кашников А.Ю., Григорьева Г.И., Новикова Н.А. Вирус Коксаки А6 в Российской Федерации в 2014 году // Дальневосточный журнал инфекционной патологии. 2015. № 28. С. 12–20. [Golitsyna L.N., Zverev V.V., Parfenova O.V., Epifanova N.V., Sashina T.A., Kashnikov A.Y., Grigor’eva G.I., Novikova N.A. Coxsackievirus A6 in Russian Federation in 2014. Dal’nevostochny zhurnal infektsionnoy patologii = The Far Eastern Journal of Infectious Pathology, 2015, no. 285, pp. 12–20. (In Russ.)]
  4. Голицына Л.Н., Зверев В.В., Парфенова О.В., Новикова Н.А. Эпидемические варианты неполиомиелитных энтеро вирусов в России // Медицинский альманах. 2015. Т. 40, № 5. С. 136–140. [Golitsyna L.N., Zverev V.V., Parfenova O.V., Novikova N.A. Epidemic variants of non-poliomyelitic enteroviruses in Russia. Medical Almanac, 2015, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 136–140. (In Russ.)]
  5. Голицына Л.Н., Зверев В.В., Пономарева Н.В., Кашников А.Ю., Леонов А.В., Сашина Т.А., Епифанова Н.В., Резайкин А.В., Сапега Е.Ю., Новикова Н.А. Эпидемиологическая ситуация по энтеровирусной инфекции в РФ в 2019 году: заболеваемость, результаты лабораторной диагностики, прогноз на 2020 г. // Заболеваемость, этиологи ческая структура и вопросы профилактики энтеровирусной (неполио) инфекции. 2020. № 7. С. 5–12. [Golitsyna L.N., Zverev V.V., Ponomareva N.V., Kashnikov A.Yu., Leonov A.V., Sashina T.A., Epifanova N.V., Rezaikin A.V., Sapega E.Yu., Novikova N.A. Epidemiological situation concerning enterovirus infection in the Russian Federation in 2019: incidence, laboratory diagnostics, prognosis for 2020. Zabolevaemost’, etiologicheskaya struktura i voprosy profilaktiki enterovirusnoy (nepolio) infektsii = Incidence, Etiological Structure and Prevention of Enterovirus Infection, 2020, no. 7, pp. 5–12. (In Russ.)]
  6. Голицына Л.Н., Зверев В.В., Пономарева Н.В., Романенкова Н.И., Нгуен Т.Т.Т., Канаева О.И., Селиванова С.Г., Леонов А.В., Розаева Н.Р., Кашников А.Ю., Бичурина М.А., Новикова Н.А. Молекулярно-эпидемиологический мониторинг циркуляции вируса Коксаки А10 // Здоровье населения и среда обитания. 2021. № 4. С. 43–49. [Golitsyna L.N., Zverev V.V., Ponomareva N.V., Romanenkova N.I., Nguyen Т.Т.Т., Kanaeva O.I., Selivanova S.G., Leonov A.V., Rozaeva N.R., Kashnikov A.Yu., Bichurina M.A., Novikova N.A. Molecular epidemiological monitoring of circulation of Coxsackievirus A10. Zdorov’e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya = Public Health and Life Environment, 2021, no. 4, pp. 43–49. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.35627/2219-5238/2021-337-4-43-49
  7. Голицына Л.Н., Зверев В.В., Селиванова-Фомина С.Г., Пономарева Н.В., Кашников А.Ю., Созонов Д.В., Сашина Т.А., Епифанова Н.В., Евплова И.А., Резайкин А.В., Сапега Е.Ю., Новикова Н.А., Ефимов Е.И. Этиологическая структура энтеровирусных инфекций в Российской Федерации в 2017–2018 гг. // Здоровье населения и среда обитания. 2019. № 8. С. 30–38. [Golitsyna L.N., Zverev V.V., Selivanova S.G., Ponomareva N.V., Kashnikov A.Yu., Sozonov D.V., Sashina T.A., Epifanova N.V., Evplova I.A., Rezaykin A.V., Sapega E.Yu., Novikova N.A., Efimov E.I. Etiological structure of enterovirus infection in the Russian Federation in 2017–2018. Zdorov’e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya = Public Health and Life Environment, 2019, no. 8, pp. 30–38. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.35627/2219-5238/2019-317-8-30-38
  8. Лукашев А.Н., Иванова О.Е., Худякова Л.В. Социально-экономическая значимость энтеровирусной инфекции и ее роль в структуре инфекционной патологии в мире // Журнал микробиологии. 2010. № 5. С. 113–120. [Lukashev A.N., Ivanova O.E., Khudyakova L.V. Socio-economic significance of enterovirus infection and its role in the structure of infectious pathology in the world. Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunobiologii = Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunobiology, 2010, vol. 5, pp. 113–120. (In Russ.)]
  9. Лукашев А.Н., Резник В.И., Иванова О.Е., Еремеева Т.П., Каравянская Т.Н., Перескокова М.А., Лебедева Л.А., Пашкевич В.А., Михайлов М.И. Молекулярная эпидемиология вируса ECHO 6 – возбудителя вспышки серозного менингита в Хабаровске в 2006 г. // Вопросы вирусологии. 2008. Т. 53, № 1. С. 16–21. [Lukashev A.N., Reznik V.I., Ivanova O.E., Eremeyeva T.P., Karavyanskaya T.N., Pereskokova M.A., Lebedeva L.A., Lashkevich V.A., Mikhallov M.I. Molecular epidemiology of ECHO 6 virus, the causative agent of the 2006 outbreak of serous meningitis in Khabarovsk. Voprosy virusologii = Problems of Virology, 2008, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 16–21. (In Russ.)]
  10. О состоянии санитарно-эпидемиологического благополучия населения в Российской Федерации в 2018 году: государственный доклад. М.: Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере защиты прав потребителей и благополучия человека, 2019. 254 с. [State of sanitary and epidemiological wellbeing of the population in the Russian Federation in 2018: state report. Moscow: Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, 2019. 254 p. (In Russ.)]
  11. О состоянии санитарно-эпидемиологического благополучия населения в Российской Федерации в 2019 году: Государственный доклад. М.: Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере защиты прав потребителей и благополучия человека, 2020. 299 с. [State of sanitary and epidemiological wellbeing of the population in the Russian Federation in 2019: state report. Moscow: Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, 2020. 299 p. (In Russ.)]
  12. Патент № 2743352 Российская Федерация, МПК C12N 15/00 (2006.01). Способ дифференциальной амплификации фрагмента области VP1 генома энтеровирусов видов Enterovirus A и Enterovirus B: № 2020117726; заявлено 2020.05.19: опубликовано 2021.02.17 / Голицына Л.Н. Патентообладатель: ФБУН Нижегородский НИИ эпидемиологии и микробиологии им. академика И.Н. Блохиной. 14 с. [Patent No. 2743352 Russian Federation, Int. Cl. C12N 15/00 (2006.01). Method for differential amplification of VP1 region fragment of enterovirus genome enterovirus A and enterovirus B. No. 2020117726; application: 2020.05.19: date of publication 2021.02.17 / Golitsyna L.N. Proprietors: Federalnoe byudzhetnoe uchrezhdenie nauki “Nizhegorodskij nauchno-issledovatelskij institut epidemiologii i mikrobiologii im. akademika I.N. Blokhinoj”. 14 p.]
  13. Романенкова Н.И., Бичурина М.А., Голицына Л.Н., Розаева Н.Р., Канаева О.И., Черкасская И.В., Кириллова Л.П., Батаева А.Ю., Барышникова А.С., Новикова Н.А. Неполиомиелитные энтеровирусы, обусловившие подъем заболеваемости энтеровирусной инфекцией на ряде территорий России в 2016 году // Журнал инфектологии. 2017. Т. 9, № 3. С. 98–108. [Romanenkova N.I., Bichurina M.A., Golitsyna L.N., Rozaeva N.R., Kanaeva O.I., Cherkasskaya I.V., Kirillova L.P., Bataeva A.Yu., Baryshnikova A.S., Novikova N.A. Nonpolio enteroviruses which caused the rise of enterovirus infection on some territories of Russia in 2016. Zhurnal infektologii = Journal Infectology, 2017, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 98–108. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.22625/2072-6732-2017-9-3-98-108
  14. Романенкова Н.И., Бичурина М.А., Розаева Н.Р., Канаева О.И., Шишко Л.А., Черкасская И.В., Кириллова Л.П. Вирусы Коксаки В1-6 как этиологический фактор энтеровирусной инфекции // Журнал инфектологии. 2016. Т. 8, № 2. С. 65–71. [Romanenkova N.I., Bichurina M.A., Rozaeva N.R., Kanaeva O.I., Shishko L.A., Cherkasskaya I.V., Kirillova L.P. Coxsackieviruses B1–6 as etiological factor of enterovirus infection. Zhurnal infektologii = Journal Infectology, 2016, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 65–71. (In Russ.)]
  15. Романенкова Н.И., Голицына Л.Н., Бичурина М.А., Розаева Н.Р., Канаева О.И., Зверев В.В., Созонов Д.В., Черкасская И.В., Кириллова Л.П., Ермакова М.В., Камынина Л.С., Петухова М.Б., Грицай А.Б., Новикова Н.А. Заболеваемость энтеровирусной инфекцией и особенности циркуляции неполиомиелитных энтеровирусов на некоторых территориях России в 2017 году // Журнал инфектологии. 2018. Т. 10, № 4. C. 124–133. [Romanenkova N.I., Golitsyna L.N., Bichurina M.A., Rozaeva N.R., Kanaeva O.I., Zverev V.V., Sozonov D.V., Cherkasskaya I.V., Kirillova L.P., Ermakova M.V., Kamynina L.S., Petukhova M.B., Gritsay A.B., Novikova N.A. Enterovirus infection morbidity and peculiarities of nonpolio enteroviruses circulation on some territories of Russia in 2017. Zhurnal infektologii = Journal Infectology, 2018, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 124–133. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.22625/2072-6732-2018-10-4-124-133
  16. Романенкова Н.И., Розаева Н.Р., Бичурина М.А., Канаева О.И., Чхинджерия И.Г., Шишкина Л.В., Мадоян А.Г., Валдайцева Н.В. Эпидемиологические аспекты энтеровирусной инфекции в Российской Федерации за период 2018–2019 гг. // Журнал инфектологии. 2021. Т. 13, № 1. С. 108–116. [Romanenkova N.I., Rozaeva N.R., Bichurina M.A., Kanaeva O.I., Chkhyndzheriya I.G., Shishkina L.V., Madoyan A.G., Valdaitseva N.V. Epidemiological aspects of enterovirus infection in the Russian Federation during the period of 2018–2019. Zhurnal infektologii = Journal Infectology, 2021, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 108–116. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.22625/2072-6732-2021-13-1-108-116
  17. Шишко Л.А., Романенкова Н.И., Бичурина М.А., Гордиенко Т.А., Розаева Н.Р., Голицына Л.Н., Фомина С.Г., Канаева О.И., Лялина Л.В., Новикова Н.А. Этиология сезонных подъемов заболеваемости энтеровирусной инфекцией в Архангельской области // Инфекция и иммунитет. 2013. Т. 3, № 1. С. 65–72. [Shishko L.A., Romanenkova N.I., Bichurina M.A., Gordienko T.A., Rozaeva N.R., Golitcina L.N., Fomina L.B., Kanaeva O.I., Lialina L.V., Novikova N.A. Etiology of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection in Arkhangelsk oblast. Infektsiya i immunitet = Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity, 2013, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 65–72. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2013-1-65-72
  18. Akhmadishina L.V., Govorukhina M.V., Kovalev E.V., Nenadskaya S.A., Ivanova O.E., Lukashev A.N. Enterovirus A71 meningoencephalitis outbreak, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2013. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2015, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1440–1443. doi: 10.3201/ eid2108.141084
  19. Bian L., Wang Y., Yao X., Mao Q., Xu M., Liang Z. Coxsackitvirus A6: a new emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks worldwide. Expert Rev. Anti-infect. Ther., 2015, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1061–1071. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2015.1058156
  20. Böttcher S., Diedrich S., Keeren K., the Laboratory Network for Enterovirus Diagnostic (LaNED). Increased detection of enterovirus A71 infections, Germany, 2019. Euro Surveill., 2019, vol. 24, no. 39: 1900556. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.39.1900556
  21. Chu S.T., Kobayashi K., Bi X., Ishizaki A., Tran T.T., Phung T.T.B., Pham C.T.T., Nguyen L.V., Ta T.A., Khu D.T.K., Agoh M., Pham A.N., Koike S., Ichimura H. Newly emerged enterovirus-A71 C4 sublineage may be more virulent than B5 in the 2015–2016 hand-foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in northern Vietnam. Sci. Rep., 2020, vol. 10: 159. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56703-5
  22. Donato C., Le T.H., Nguen T.H., Tran M.H., Le V.D., Ta T.D.N., Nguen V.K., Nguen V.T., Vijaykrishna D. Genetic characterization of Enterovirus 71 strains circulating in Vietnam in 2012. Virology, 2016, vol. 495, pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.04.026
  23. Hoang C.Q., Nguyen H.D., Ho N.X., Vu T.H.T., Pham T.T.M., Nguyen K.T., Nguyen H.T., Hoang L.T., Clapham H., Nguyen T.T.T., Phan L.T. Incidence of infection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackieviruses A6 and A16 among household contacts of index cases in Dong Thap Province, Southern Vietnam. BioMed Res. Int., 2020: 9850351. doi: 10.1155/2020/9850351
  24. Hoang C.Q., Nguyen T.T.T., Ho N.X., Nguyen H.D., Nguyen A.B., Nguyen T.H.T., Phan H.C., Phan L.T. Transmission and serotype features of hand foot mouth disease in household contacts in Dong Thap, Vietnam. BMC Infect. Dis., 2019, vol. 19: 933. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4583-1
  25. Hoang M.T.V., Nguyen T.A., Tran T.T., Vu T.T.H., Le N.T.N., Nguyen T.H.N., Le T.H.N., Nguyen T.T.H., Nguyen T.H., Le N.T.N., Truong H.K., Du T.Q., Ha M.T., Ho L.V., Do C.V., Nguyen T.N., Nguyen T.M.T., Sabanathan S., Phan T.Q., Nguyen Van V.C., Thwaites G.E., Wills B., Thwaites C.L., Le V.T., van Doorn H.R. Clinical and aetiological study of hand, foot and mouth disease in southern Vietnam, 2013–2015: inpatients and outpatients. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2019, vol. 80, pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.12.004
  26. Kumar S., Stecher G., Tamura K. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol. Biol. Evol., 2016, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1870–1874. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msw054
  27. Le T.V., Nguyen V.T.T., Nguyen Q.H., Pham D.T. Molecular epidemiology analysis of enterovirus 71 strains isolated in Dak Lak, Vietnam, 2011–2016. J. Med. Virol., 2019, vol. 91. pp. 56–64. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25286
  28. Mirand A., Henqell C., Archimbaud C., Ughetto S., Antona D., Bailly J.L., Peigue-Lafeuille H. Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina associated with coxsackievirus A6 and A10 infections in 2010, France: a large citywide, prospective observational study. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2012, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 110–118. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03789.x
  29. Nguen T.T.T., Donato C., Trang V.T.H., Kien N.T., Trang P.M.M.T., Khanh T.Q., Nguyet D.T., Sessions O.M., Cuong H.Q., Lan P.T., Huong V.T.Q., van Doorn H.R., Vijaykrishna D. Evolution and spatiotemporal dynamics of enterovirus A71 subgenogroups in Vietnam. J. Infect. Dis., 2017, vol. 216, no. 11, pp. 1371–1379. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix500
  30. Nguyen N.T., Pham H.V., Hoang C.Q., Nguyen T.M., Nguyen L.T., Phan H.C., Phan L.T., Vu L.N., Tran Minh N.N. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011. BMC Infect Dis., 2014, vol. 14: 341. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-341
  31. Nhan L.N.T., Khanh T.H., Hong N.T.T., Van H.M.T., Nhu L.N.T., Ny N.T.H., Nguyet L.A., Thanh T.T., Anh N.T., Hang V.T.T., Qui P.T., Viet H.L., Tung T.H., Ha D.Q., Tuan H.M., Thwaites G., Chau N.V.V., Thwaites L., Hung N.T., van Doorn H.R., Tan L.V. Clinical, etiological and epidemiological investigations of hand, foot and mouth disease in southern Vietnam during 2015–2018. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2020, vol. 14, no. 8: e0008544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008544
  32. Nix W.A., Oberste M.S., Pallansch M.A. Sensitive seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens. Clin. Microbiol., 2006, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2698–2704. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00542-06
  33. Österback R., Vuorinen T., Linna M., Susi P., Hyypiä T., Waris M. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2009, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1485–1488. doi: 10.3201/eid1509.090438
  34. Puenpa J., Auphimai C., Korkong S., Vongpunsawad S., Poovorawan Y. Enterovirus A71 infection, Thailand, 2017. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2018, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1386–1387. doi: 10.3201/eid2407.171923
  35. Sun H., Gao M., Cui D. Мolecular characteristics of the VP1 region of enterovirus 71 strains in China. Gut Pathog., 2020, vol. 14, no. 12: 38. doi: 10.1186/s13099-020-00377-2
  36. Tan le V., Thai le H., Phu N.H., Nghia H.D., Chuong L.V., Sinh D.X., Phong N.D., Mai N.T., Man D.N., Hien V.M., Vinh N.T., Day J., Chau N.V., Hien T.T., Farrar J., de Jong M.D., Thwaites G., van Doorn H.R., Chau T.T. Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2014, vol. 8, no. 8: e3127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003127
  37. Thoa le P.K., Chiang P.S., Khanh T.H., Luo S.T., Dan T.N., Wang Y.F., Thuong T.C., Chung W.Y., Hung N.T., Wang J.R., Nhan le N.T., Thinh le Q., Su I.J., Dung T.D., Lee M.S. Genetic and antigenic characterization of enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011. PLoS One, 2013, vol. 8, no. 7: e69895. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069895
  38. WHO. A guide to clinical management and public health response for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). WHO: Geneva, 2011. 71 p.
  39. WHO. List of Blueprint priority diseases. February 2018 — second annual review. WHO: Geneva, 2018. 17 p.
  40. WHO. Polio laboratory manual. 4th edition. WHO: Geneva, 2004. 157 p.
  41. Zhang Y., Wang D., Yan D., Zhu S., Liu J., Wang H., Zhao S., Yu D., Nan L., An J., Chen L., An H., Xu A., Xu W. Molecular evidence of persistent epidemic and evolution of subgenotype B1 coxsaсkievirus A16-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in China. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2010, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 619–622. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02338-09

Supplementary files

There are no supplementary files to display.


Copyright (c) 2021 Romanenkova N.I., Golitsyna L.N., Nguyen T.T., Ponomareva N.V., Leonov A.V., Kanaeva O.I., Zverev V.V., Selivanova S.G., Rozaeva N.R., Luong M.T., Bichurina M.A., Novikova N.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies