Fungal allergies in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

Cover Page

Cite item


Examining a role of fungal allergy in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (PS) is of particular interest and determines the relevance of the current study. The purpose of the study is to analyze and carry out a comparative analysis for multiple sensitizations to fungal allergens in patients with AD and PS. Materials and methods. The study involved patients with atopic dermatitis (group 1, n = 53, mean age 33.0±1.3 years) and psoriasis (group 2, n = 53, mean age 40.0±1.8 years) aged from 18 to 66 years old. Sensitization to fungal allergens was assessed by skin prick testing with standardized fungal allergens: Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium notatum (Allergopharma, Germany) and nutritional yeast (Microgen, Russia). The concentration of allergen-specific IgE to a mixture of fungal allergens: Penicillium notatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor racemosus, Alternaria alternata (Alkor Bio, Russia) was determined by the method of indirect immunofluorescence analysis on a semiautomatic analyzer Multiskan FC (ThermoFisher Scientific, Finland). The test was considered positive at an IgE level of ≥ 0.35 kE/L. Statistica 8.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Results and discussion. When studying the features of sensitization to fungal allergens, it was determined that in the group of patients with AD was the highest frequency of sensitization to nutritional yeast, as well as fungi of the genus Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. In the group of PS patients, the highest frequency of sensitization to fungi of the genus Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata was found. When studying intergroup differences, it was determined that the rate of sensitization to fungi was insignificantly higher in the group of patients with PS in comparison with AD. Sensitization to a mixture of fungal allergens based on the concentration of allergen-specific IgE was more often observed in the group of AD patients vs. patients with PS: 15% versus 5,3%. Most likely, reagins of a different class (IgG4) can participate in the development of AD and PS, or other immunopathological mechanisms of allergy triggering (according to the Gell and Coombs classification) can be involved. Thus, fungal allergy may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Our research can guide clinicians in terms of personalized approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies, including specific allergological examination, not only for patients with AD, but also for those with PS.

About the authors

A. A. Barilo

Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5349-9122

Anna A. Barilo - PhD (Medicine), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Clinical Pathophysiology, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

660022, Krasnoyarsk, Partizana Zheleznyaka str., 3g.

Phone: +7 391 228-060-83.

Russian Federation

S. V. Smirnova

Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1197-1481

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Research Direction Manager, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

660022, Krasnoyarsk, Partizana Zheleznyaka str., 3g.

Russian Federation


  1. Барило А.А., Смирнова С.В. Роль алиментарных факторов и пищевой аллергии в развитии псориаза // Вопросы питания. 2020. Т. 89, № 1. С. 60–68. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10002
  2. Барило А.А., Смирнова С.В. Сравнительный анализ спектра сенсибилизации к пищевым, пыльцевым и грибковым аллергенам пациентов с псориазом и атопическим дерматитом// Вопросы питания. 2020. Т. 89, № 5. С. 28–34. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10063
  3. Барило А.А., Смирнова С.В., Смольникова М.В. Иммунологические показатели больных псориазом в различные возрастные периоды // Российский иммунологический журнал. 2017. Т. 11 (20), № 4. C. 680–681.
  4. Барило А.А., Смирнова С.В., Смольникова М.В. Показатели иммунитета у больных псориатическим артритом в зависимости от возраста // Медицинская иммунология. 2019. Т. 21, № 1. С. 69–76. doi: 10.15789/1563-0625-2019-1-69-76
  5. Гончаров А.А., Долгих О.В. Иммунологические и генетические особенности патогенетической ассоциации псориаза и дисбиоза толстого кишечника // Инфекция и иммунитет. 2021. Т. 11, № 2. С. 237–248. doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-IAG-1277
  6. Реброва О.Ю. Статистический анализ медицинских данных. Применение пакета прикладных программ STATISTICA. Москва: МедиаСфера, 2003. 312 c.
  7. Синицын Б.Ф. К обнаружению псориатического антигена как некоторого аналога инфекционных прионных белков // Инфекция и иммунитет. 2019. Т. 9, № 3–4. С. 589–594. doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2019-3-4-589-594
  8. Смирнова С.В., Барило А.А., Смольникова М.В. Прогностическое значение клинических и анамнестических маркеров псориатического артрита // Клиническая дерматология и венерология. 2016. Т. 15, № 1. С. 23–27.
  9. Смирнова С.В., Смольникова М.В., Барило А.А. Клинико-анамнестические критерии прогрессирования псориаза // Клиническая дерматология и венерология. 2016. Т. 15, № 2. С. 9–15. doi: 10.17116/klinderma20161529-15
  10. Царев С.В. Аллергия к грибам: особенности клинических проявлений и диагностики // Астма и аллергия. 2015. № 3. С. 3–7.
  11. Alexander H., Paller A.S., Traidl Hoffmann C., Beck L.A., De Benedetto A., Dhar S., Girolomoni G., Irvine A.D., Spuls P., Su J., Thyssen J.P., Vestergaard C., Werfel T., Wollenberg A., Deleuran M., Flohr C. The role of bacterial skin infections in atopic dermatitis: expert statement and review from the International Eczema Council Skin Infection Group. Br. J. Dermatol., 2020, vol. 182, no. 6, pp. 1331–1342. doi: 10.1111/bjd.18643
  12. Ayala-Fontánez N., Soler D.C., McCormick T.S. Current knowledge on psoriasis and autoimmune diseases. Psoriasis (Auckl)., 2016, vol. 6, pp. 7–32. doi: 10.2147/PTT.S64950
  13. Bacher P., Hohnstein T., Beerbaum E., Röcker M., Blango M.G., Kaufmann S., Röhmel J., Eschenhagen P., Grehn C., Seidel K., Rickerts V., Lozza L., Stervbo U., Nienen M., Babel N., Milleck J., Assenmacher M., Cornely O.A., Ziegler M., Wisplinghoff H., Heine G., Worm M., Siegmund B., Maul J., Creutz P., Tabeling C., Ruwwe-Glösenkamp C., Sander L.E., Knosalla C., Brunke S., Hube B., Kniemeyer O., Brakhage A.A., Schwarz C., Scheffold A. Human anti-fungal Th17 immunity and pathology rely on cross-reactivity against Candida albicans. Cell, 2019, vol. 176, pp. 1340–1355. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.041
  14. Bedair A.A., Darwazeh A.M., Al-Aboosi M.M. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol., 2012, vol. 114, pp. 610–615. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.05.01
  15. Campana R., Dzoro S., Mittermann I., Fedenko E., Elisyutina O., Khaitov M., Karaulov A., Valenta R. Molecular aspects of allergens in atopic dermatitis. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2017, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 269–277. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000378
  16. Campana R., Moritz K., Marth K., Neubauer A., Huber H., Henning R., Blatt K., Hoermann G., Brodie T.M., Kaider A., Valent P., Sallusto F., Wöhrl S., Valenta R. Frequent occurrence of T cell-mediated late reactions revealed by atopy patch testing with hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2016, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 601–609. doi: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_493_17
  17. Celakovská J., Josef B., Ettler K., Vaneckova J., Ettlerova K., Jan K. Sensitization to fungi in atopic dermatitis patients 14 year and older — association with other atopic diseases and parameters. Indian J. Dermatol., 2018, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 391–398. doi: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_493_17
  18. Egbuniwe I.U., Karagiannis S.N., Nestle F.O., Lacy K.E. Revisiting the role of B cells in skin immune surveillance. Trends Immunol., 2015, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 102–111. doi: 10.1016/
  19. Fairs A., Agbetile J., Hargadon B., Bourne M., Monteiro W.R., Brightling C.E., Bradding P., Green R.H., Mutalithas K., Desai D., Pavord I.D., Wardlaw A.J., Pashley C.H. IgE sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with reduced lung function in asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2010, vol. 182, no. 11, pp. 1362–1368. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.155.6.9196093
  20. Gaitanis G., Magiatis P., Hantschke M., Bassukas I.D., Velegraki A. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2012, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 106–141. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00021-11
  21. Gomez-Moyano E., Crespo-Erchiga V., Martínez-Pilar L., Godoy Diaz D., Martínez-García S., Navarro L.M., Casano V.A. Do Malassezia species play a role in exacerbation of scalp psoriasis? J. Mycol. Med., 2014, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 87–92. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2013.10.007
  22. Hurabielle C., Link V.M., Bouladoux N., Han S., Merrill E.D., Lightfoot Y.L., Seto N., Bleck C.K.E., Smelkinson M., Harrison O.J., Linehan J.L., Tamoutounour S., Lionakis M.S., Kaplan M.J., Nakajima S., Belkaid Y. Immunity to commensal skin fungi promotes psoriasiform skin inflammation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2020, vol. 117, no. 28, pp. 16465–16474. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2003022117
  23. Limon J.J., Skalski J.H., Underhill D.M. Commensal fungi in health and disease. Cell Host Microbe, 2018, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 156– 165. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.07.002
  24. Morita E., Hide M., Yoneya Y., Kannbe M., Tanaka A., Yamamoto S. An assessment of the role of Candida albicans antigen in atopic dermatitis. J. Dermatol., 1999, vol. 26, pp. 282–287. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.1999.tb03473.x
  25. Ovčina-Kurtović N., Kasumagić-Halilović E., Helppikangans H., Begić J. Prevalence of Candida species in patients with psoriasis. Acta Dermatovenerol. Croat., 2016, vol. 24, pp. 209–213.
  26. Pietrzak A., Grywalska E., Socha M., Roliński J., Franciszkiewicz-Pietrzak K., Rudnicka L., Rudzki M., Krasowska D. Prevalence and possible role of Candida species in patients with psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mediators Inflamm., 2018: 9602362. doi: 10.1155/2018/9602362
  27. Salava A., Lauerma A. Role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis. Clin. Transl. Allergy, 2014, vol. 4: 33. doi: 10.1186/2045-7022-4-33
  28. Sanchez D.A., Nosanchuk J.D., Friedman A.J. The skin microbiome: is there a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis? J. Drugs Dermatol., 2015, vol. 14, pp. 127–130.
  29. Seite S., Bieber T. Barrier function and microbiotic dysbiosis in atopic dermatitis. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol., 2015, vol. 8, pp. 479–483. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S91521
  30. Takemoto A., Cho O., Morohoshi Y., Sugita T., Muto M. Molecular characterization of the skin fungal microbiome in patients with psoriasis. J. Dermatol., 2015, vol. 42, pp. 166–170. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.12739
  31. Tomi N.S., Kränke B., Aberer E. Staphylococcal toxins in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and erythroderma, and in healthy control subjects. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 67–72. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.02.034
  32. Weryńska-Kalemba M., Filipowska-Grońska A., Kalemba M., Krajewska A., Grzanka A., Bożek A., Jarząb J. Analysis of selected allergic reactions among psoriatic patients. Postepy Dermatol. Alergol., 2016, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 18–22. doi: 10.5114/pdia.2014.44015
  33. Williams M.R., Gallo R.L. The role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep., 2015, vol. 15, no. 11: 65. doi: 10.1007/s11882-015-0567-4
  34. Zielinski C.E., Mele F., Aschenbrenner D., Jarrossay D., Ronchi F., Gattorno M., Monticelli S., Lanzavecchia A., Sallusto F. Pathogen-induced human TH17 cells produce IFN-γ or IL-10 and are regulated by IL-1β. Nature, 2012, vol. 26, no. 484 (7395), pp. 514–518. doi: 10.1038/nature10957

Supplementary files

There are no supplementary files to display.

Copyright (c) 2022 Barilo A.A., Smirnova S.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ № ФС 77 - 64788 от 02.02.2016.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies