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Abstract. T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are a CD4+ Th cell subset promoted the cognate control of antigen-specific B cell immunity. Upon first contact with antigen-primed B cells, Tfh can support either extrafollicularly differentiation into short-lived plasma cells (PC) or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GC). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) interaction between Tfh and activated B-cells is essential for GC development. Within GC, Tfh regulates the fate of antigen-specific GC B cells expressing high-affinity B cell receptors to develop memory B cell (Bm) or long-lived PC. Short-lived PC produce low-affinity IgM and IgG3 early antibodies. Both Bm and long-lived PC have high-affinity class-switched IgA and IgG, predominantly IgG1 antibodies. Measles virus uses human SLAM-molecule as a cellular receptor. SLAM is expressed on dendritic cells and activated B and T-cells. This is an important regulator of the isotype switching and antibody affinity maturation, especially IgG3-IgG1 switching. Development of long-term humoral immunity, charac terized by the formation of high-affinity predominantly IgG1 antibodies, is a critical component of protective immunity to pathogens and the major goal of vaccination. However, the mechanisms involved in the shaping and sustaining of long-term humoral immunity remain poorly understood.

About the authors

A. P. Toptygina

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institut for Epidemiology and Microbilogy, Moscow

Author for correspondence.

PhD (Medicine), Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Cytokine

125212, Russian Federation, Moscow, Admiral Makarov str., 10

Russian Federation


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