COVID-19: an updated review

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COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease that showed higher levels of transmissibility in humans. Coronavirus has the largest recognized genome (28–33 kb) of a positive-sense single stranded RNA. The genome composed of 5′-end, the translationable mRNA sequences for the key proteins; replicase, spike, envelop membrane, and nucleocapsid and 3′-end (polyA tail). This highly contagious virus may impair the immune system in the early phase of the disease, hence the symptoms of the disease appear very rapidly. Importantly until now, there is no efficient strategy for containing the disease. So, all the world scientists today are in a race against time to find a vaccine or treatment to COVID-19, which requires a deeper understanding.

About the authors

F. A. Isihak

University of Mosul

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6409-3969

Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine



M. A. Hamad

University of Mosul

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9278-5391

Mohammad A. Hamad – Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine

Al Majmoaa Street, Mosul
Phone: +964 77 28214770 


N. G. Mustafa

University of Mosul

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8351-1230

Professor, Head of Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine




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