Neutrophil granulocytes: participation in homeostatic and reparative processes. Part II

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Abstract

A supportive homeostatic function of neutrophilic granulocytes is accomplished in the physiology of diverse tissues and body systems. Neutrophils are found along the entire female reproductive tract (FRT), gradually declining in numbers from the upper parts towards the vagina. At the same time, both quantity and activity of FRT mucosal neutrophils are controlled by hormonal changes at different phases of menstrual cycle. Tissue neutrophils serve as an important source of broad-spectrum proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases and elastase necessary for extracellular matrix remodeling as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) required for physiological FRT angiogenesis. During pregnancy, decidual neutrophils play a prominent role in vascular remodeling in pregnant uterus as well as development of maternal-fetal immune tolerance. The influx of neutrophils into the intestinal mucosa due to its trauma or infection not only ensures defense against pathogens, but also leads to increased proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Neutrophilic granulocytes elicit signals and events protective for the epithelium by marking them with a “hypoxic signature” to trigger transcription of the gene set responsible for production of mucins, mucin-modifying peptides, antimicrobial proteins, в-defensins, ultimately contributing to lesion healing and recovery of epithelial barrier function. “Inflammatory hypoxia” initiated by neutrophils and subsequent stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) in intestinal epithelial cells trigger mechanisms of self-limited and resolved inflammation, which prevent excessive accumulation of neutrophils in the intestinal lumen and development of chronic inflammatory process. Neutrophilic granulocytes dominate in the oral cavity mucosa and comprise more than 95% of total leukocyte population recruited into the gingival sulcus and gingival fluid. Neutrophils maintain physiological amount and stability of symbiotic microflora composition in dental and gingival biofilms, counteracting pathogenic bacteria via phagocytosis, degranulation and extracellular trap formation, thereby ensuring healthy state in periodontal structures. Finally, similar to some other congenital disorders affecting neutrophil quantity and functions it was shown that in case of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) pathogenesis of periodontitis may not only be associated with a defect in their protective effector activity, but also with altered immunoregulatory function of tissue neutrophils.

About the authors

I. I. Dolgushin

South-Ural State Medical University

Email: alena_mez_75@mail.ru

Dolgushin I.I., PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, President of South-Ural State Medical University, Head of the Department of Microbiology, Virology, Immunology and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

Chelyabinsk

Russian Federation

E. A. Mezentseva

South-Ural State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: alena_mez_75@mail.ru

Elena A. Mezentseva - PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Virology, Immunology and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

454092, Chelyabinsk, Vorovskogo str., 64, Phone: +7 902 892-28-43 Russian Federation

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