Implementation of the program of measles elimination in the WHO African region

Cover Page

Cite item

Abstract

The review is devoted to the analysis of the available literature on the elimination of measles. The review focuses on the current measles epidemic situation in the African Region (AFR) and the implementation of the WHO strategic plan for the elimination of measles in AFR by 2020. Measles in the AFR is characterized by a severe course with a high risk of death due to malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, concomitant bacterial and viral infections, and malaria. In 2015, 105,256 cases of measles were reported in the WHO African Region, most of them among children under 5 years old, 79% of whom were not vaccinated or had unknown vaccine status. Initially, the strategy for implementing the measles elimination program in AFRs was based on a combination of immunization campaigns for children under 14 years of age (coverage of more than 90%) and routine vaccination of at least 90% of children aged 9–15 months. It was recommended to repeat the campaign of mass immunization of children aged 9 months up to 4 years every 3–5 years. The use of this strategy has reduced the number of measles cases by 83–97% during the first year of additional immunization programs. The recommended age of routine measles vaccination in AFRs is 9 months — a strategy to reduce infant mortality, including that due to complications of measles. In 2016, measles vaccination was introduced into the national immunization schedule in all AFR countries, and 24 countries introduced revaccination. Currently, the measles elimination program in a number of AFR countries is based on two-dose immunization (MCV1 and MCV2). The measles prevention program in a number of AFR countries was disrupted due to the Ebola epidemic. There are some common problems in the realization of the program in AFR countries. All AFR countries are committed to the measles elimination program. The review provides information on strategies and successes in overcoming challenges to achieve the goals set for the WHO African Region in the implementation of the programme of measles elimination.

About the authors

J . Camara

University Gamal Abdel Nasser

Author for correspondence.
Email: Jacob2240@gmail.com

Researcher, Laboratory of Hemorrhagic Fevers,

Conakry

Russian Federation

A. Yu. Antipova

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: anti130403@mail.ru

PhD (Biology), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, 

197101, St. Petersburg, Mira str., 14,

Guinea

M. A. Bichurina

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: romanenkova@pasteurorg.ru

PhD, MD (Medicine), Head of the Laboratory of Etiology and Control of Viral Infections,

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

V. V. Zarubaev

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: zarubaev@gmail.com

PhD (Biology), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

N . Magassouba

University Gamal Abdel Nasser

Email: fake@neicon.ru

PhD (Biology), Head of the Laboratory of Hemorrhagic Fevers,

Conakry

Guinea

I. N. Lavrentieva

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: pasteur.lawr@mail.ru

PhD, MD (Medicine), Head of the Laboratory of Experimental Virology, 

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

References

  1. Антипова А.Ю., Бичурина М.А., Лаврентьева И.Н., Тотолян А.А. Корь в странах Африканского региона ВОЗ на этапе элиминации инфекции // Актуальные инфекции в Гвинейской Республике: эпидемиология, диагностика и иммунитет / Под ред. А.Ю. Поповой. СПб.: ФБУН НИИЭМ имени Пастера, 2017. С. 264–278.
  2. Бектимиров Т.А. Стратегия ВОЗ по глобальной ликвидации кори // Вакцинация. Новости вакцинопрофилактики. 2002. Т. 4, № 22. URL: https://medi.ru/info/6823 (20.08.2019)
  3. ВОЗ. Глобальная ликвидация кори. Доклад Секретариата. Пункт 11.15 предварительной повестки дня. 63 сессия Всемирной Ассамблеи Здравоохранения, А63/18, 25 марта 2010 г.
  4. ВОЗ. Десятилетие вакцин — Глобальный план действий в отношении вакцин на 2011–2020 гг.
  5. Корь / Под ред. В.Ф. Попова. М.: Медицина, 1985. 264 с.
  6. Мир в 2050 году. Количественная оценка сдвигов в глобальной экономике (доклад банка HSBC).
  7. Попова А.Ю., Бичурина М.А., Лаврентьева И.Н., Железнова Н.В., Антипова А.Ю., Щербакова С.А., Буаро М.Й., Тотолян Арег А. Изучение уровня иммунитета к вирусу кори в отдельных группах населения Гвинейской Республики в рамках глобальной программмы элиминации кори // Актуальные инфекции в Гвинейской Респуб лике: эпидемиология, диагностика и иммунитет / Под ред. А.Ю. Поповой. СПб.: ФБУН НИИЭМ имени Пастера, 2017. С. 279–284.
  8. Попова А.Ю., Бичурина М.А., Лаврентьева И.Н., Железнова Н.В., Антипова А.Ю., Щербакова С.А., Буаро М.Й., Тотолян Арег А. Изучение уровня иммунитета к вирусу кори в отдельных группах населения Гвинейской Республики в рамках глобальной программы элиминации кори. Сообщение 1 // Инфекция и иммунитет. 2016. Т. 6, № 4. С. 353–358. doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2016-4-353-358 (In Russ.)
  9. Попова А.Ю., Бичурина М.А., Лаврентьева И.Н., Железнова Н.В.,Антипова А.Ю., Щербакова С.А., Буаро М.Й., Тотолян Арег А. Изучение уровня иммунитета к вирусу кори в отдельных группах населения Гвинейской Республики в рамках глобальной программы элиминации кори. Сообщение 2 // Инфекция и иммунитет. 2017. T. 7, № 1. С. 79–84. doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2016-4-353-358 (In Russ.)]
  10. Accelerating progress towards measles/rubella control and elimination goals. Laboratory Recommendations. The 14th Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Meeting. Geneva, 21–23 June 2016.
  11. Akalu H.B. Review on measles situation in ethiopia; past and present. J. Trop. Dis., 2015, vol. 4, pp. 193.
  12. Andrews N.M. Liberia, Chad top measles deaths. URL: https://allafrica.com/stories/201603290762.html (20.08.2019)
  13. Bassey B.E., Gasasira A., Weldegbriel G., Sylvester M.T., Richard K.I., Thompson I., Benjamin A., Agwai S., Akpan G.U. Impact of a nationwide measles immunization campaign and routine immunization in Nigeria, 2006–2010: a critical review of SouthSouth, Nigeria. Sci. J. Public Health., 2015, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 693–698.
  14. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles eradication: recommendations from a meeting cosponsored by the WHO, the PAHO and CDC. MMWR, 1997, vol. 46, no. RR-II, pp. 1–20.
  15. Debuse P.J., Lewis M.G., Mugerwa J.W. Pulmonary complications of measles in Uganda. J. Trop. Pediatr., 1970, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 197–203.
  16. Dia N., Fall A., Ka R., Fall A., Kiori D.E., Goudiaby D.G., Fall A.D., Faye el H.A., Dosseh A., Ndiaye K., Diop O.M., Niang M.N. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of measles strains in Senegal, 2004–2013. PLoS One, 2015, vol. 10, no. 5: e0121704. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121704
  17. Effects of health programs on child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eds. Ewbank D.C., Gribble J.N. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1993. 208 p. doi: 10.17226/2208
  18. Faneye A.O., Adeniji J.A., Olusola B.A., Motayo B.O., Akintunde G.B. Measles virus infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated children in Nigeria. Viral Immunol., 2015, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 304–308. doi: 10.1089/vim.2014.0118
  19. Foster A., Johnson G.J. Measles corneal ulceration and childhood blindness: prevention and treatment. Trop. Doct., 1988, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 74–78.
  20. Gil Cuesta J., Mukembe N., Valentiner-Branth P., Stefanoff P., Lenglet A. Measles vaccination coverage survey in Moba, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2013: need to adapt routine and mass vaccination campaigns to reach the unreached. PLoS Curr., 2015, pp. 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.8a1b00760dfd81481eb42234bd18ced3
  21. Global distribution of measles and rubella genotypes — update. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2006, vol. 81, no. 51/52, pp. 474–480.
  22. Le Roux D.M., Le Roux S.M., Nuttall J.J., Eley B.S. South African measles outbreak 2009–2010 as experienced by a paediatric hospital. S. Afr. Med. J., 2012, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 760–764. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.5984
  23. Mancini S., Coldiron M.E., Ronsse A., Ilunga B.K., Porten K., Grais R.F. Description of a large measles epidemic in Democratic Republic of Congo, 2010–2013. Conf .Health., 2014, vol. 8, pp. 9. doi: 10.1186/1752-1505-8-9
  24. Masresha B.G. Measles pre-elimination and resurgence in the African region. Global Measles Management Meeting Geneva 15–17 March 2011. URL: https://www.slideserve.com/magar/measles-pre-elimination-and-resurgence-in-the-african-region (20.08.2019)
  25. Masresha B.G., Dixon M.G., Kriss J.L., Katsande R., Shibeshi M.E., Luce R., Fall A., Dosseh A.R.G.A., Byabamazima C.R., Dabbagh A.J., Goodson J.L., Mihigo R. Progress toward measles elimination — African Region, 2013–2016. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 2017, vol. 66, no. 17, pp. 436–443.
  26. Masresha B.G., Kaiser R., Eshetu M., Katsande R., Luce R., Fall A., Dosseh A.R.G.A., Naouri B., Byabamazima Ch.R., Perry R., Dabbagh A.J., Strebel P., Kretsinger K., Goodson J.L., Nshimirimana D. Progress toward measles preelimination — African region, 2011–2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 2014, vol. 63, no. 13, pp. 285–291.
  27. Measles Mortality Reduction — West Africa, 1996–2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 2004, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 28–30.
  28. Médecins Sans Frontières: Children who survived measles are now suffering from malnutrition and malaria. 24 Februar 2016. URL: http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/320406/459656_de.html (12.08.2019)
  29. Médecins Sans Frontières. Democratic Republic of Congo: Fighting measles in South Kivu. 8 February 2017. URL: http://www.msf.org/en/article/democratic-republic-congo-fighting-measles-south-kivu (12.08.2019)
  30. Médecins Sans Frontières. Measles: mass vaccinationin Katanga, DR Congo. 2008. URL: http://www.msf.org.uk/article/measlesmass-vaccination-katanga-dr-congo Accessed on february 2014 (12.08.2019)
  31. Ntshoe G.M, McAnerney J.M., Archer B.N., Smit S.B., Harris B.N., Tempia S., Mashele M., Singh B., Thomas J., Cengimbo A., Blumberg L.H., Puren A., Moyes J., van den Heever J., Schoub B.D., Cohen C. Measles Outbreak in South Africa: epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed measles cases and assessment of intervention, 2009–2011. PLoS One, 2013, vol. 8, no. 2: e55682. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055682
  32. Ofosu-Amaah S. The control of measles in Tropical Africa: a review of past and present efforts. Rev. Infect. Dis., 1983, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 546–553.
  33. Pan American Health Organization. Global Measles Eradication: Target 2010? EPI Newsletter. 1996, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1–3.
  34. Saleh J.E.A. Trends of measles in Nigeria: a systematic review. Sahel Med. J., 2016, vol. 19, pp. 5–11.
  35. Shibeshi M.E., Masresha B.G., Smit S.B., Biellik R.J., Nicholson J.L., Muitherero C., Shivute N., Walker O., Reggis K., Goodson J.L. Measles resurgence in southern Africa: challenges to measles elimination. Vaccine, 2014, vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 1798–1807.
  36. Strebel P., WHO, IVB/EPI. Status of Measles and Rubella Elimination — Regions and Global. Closing immunity gaps in older children and adults towards measles and rubella elimination: lessons learned and challenges. 10 May 2016.
  37. Takahashi S., Metcalf S.J. E., Ferrari M. J., Moss W.J., Truelove S.A., Tatem A.J., Grenfell B.T., Lessler J. Reduced vaccination and the risk of measles and other childhood infections post-Ebola. Science, 2015, vol. 347, no. 6227, pp. 1240–1242.
  38. Uzicanin A., Eggers R., Webb E., Harris B., Durrheim D., Ogunbanjo G., Isaacs V., Hawkridge A., Biellik R., Strebel P. Impact of the 1996–1997 supplementary measles vaccination campaigns in South Africa. Int. J. Epidemiol., 2002, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 968–976.
  39. WHO. African Region. Measles outbreaks and progress towards meeting measles pre-elimination goals. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2011, vol. 13, no.14, pp. 129–136.
  40. WHO. African regional guidelines for measles surveillance. Brazzaville, Congo: World Health Organization. 2011.
  41. WHO. African regional guidelines for measles and rubella surveillance. 2015.
  42. WHO. Global measles and rubella strategic plan: 2012–2020. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organ. 2012.
  43. WHO. Measles elimination by 2020—a strategy for the African Region. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa. 2011.
  44. WHO. Measles virus nomenclature update: 2012. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2012, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 73–80.
  45. WHO. Millions of children to receive measles vaccine in north-eastern Nigeria. URL: http://www.who.int/features/2017/measlesvaccination-nigeria/en
  46. WHO. Progress towards measles pre-elimination, African Region, 2011–2012. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2014, vol. 13, no. 89, pp.141–152.
  47. WHO. Reported measles cases and incidence rates by WHO Member States 2016, 2017 as of 11 April 2017. URL: http://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/surveillance_type/active/measles_monthlydata/en/index1.html
  48. WHO. Treating measles in children. WHO/EPI/TRAM/97.02. 2004: 64. URL: http://www.who.int/immunization/programmes_ systems/interventions/TreatingMeaslesENG300.pdf
  49. Yishay A.B., Kranker K. All-cause mortality reductions from measles catchup campaigns in Africa. J. Hum. Res., 2015, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 516–547.

Supplementary files

There are no supplementary files to display.


Copyright (c) 2019 Camara J..., Antipova A.Y., Bichurina M.A., Zarubaev V.V., Magassouba N..., Lavrentieva I.N.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies