Molecular genetic and clinical aspects of socially relevant viruses underlying congenital diseases

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Abstract

Congenital viral infectious diseases are characterized by polyetiologic pathology holding an important place in the structure of perinatal losses. Due to the wide distribution and lack of specific prophylaxis, the problem of herpesvirus infections is of greatest interest, namely of herpes infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, human herpes simplex virus type 6 and cytomegalovirus infection, as well as parvovirus infection B19. The opportunities to investigate a relation between manifestations of the infectious process and host molecular genetic characteristics have been expanded after developing full genome sequencing methods and creating genetic data international banks. It has been proven that herpes virus genetic variations can account for related neurovirulence, showing that diverse cytomegalovirus genotypes are associated with hepatosplenomegaly, hearing impairment and the symptoms of the central nervous system diseases. Nevertheless, the data on correlation between genotypes and clinical manifestations are still scarce and contradictory, whereas high level of variability becomes extremely evident while comparing genomic sequences of viral strains. The herpesvirus type 6 has been proven to integrate into germ cells with potential for subsequent vertical transmission of chromosomally integrated virus to the offspring and its further intergeneration inheritance. А direct relationship between B19V genospecies and disease manifestations including congenital infections has not yet been identified. Taking into account possible differences in the geographical distribution of such viruses on the territory of the Russian Federation, ethnic populational characteristics, and high frequency of related congenital infectious diseases with a wide range of clinical manifestations, it seems promising to expand scientific research on the genotyping of herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, herpes viruses type 6 and parvovirus B19V in Russia. The results of such studies will be demanded by practical healthcare in order to develop and use more effective etiotropic drugs and specific prophylaxis in the light of trends to develop personalized and preventive medicine.

About the authors

V. V. Vasilev

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases; North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov

Author for correspondence.
Email: vcubed@ya.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7336-8805

Valerii V. Vasilev,  PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Research Department of Congenital Infectious Diseases; Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases

191015, St. Petersburg, Professor Popov str., 9

Phone: +7 (812) 234-60-04 (office), +7 921 940-93-84 (mobile)

Fax: +7 (812) 234-96-91 

Russian Federation

N. V. Rogozina

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases; St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Email: lelekin96@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0968-6291

PhD (Medicine), Senior Researcher, Department of Congenital Infectious Diseases; Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children

St. Petersburg 

Russian Federation

A. A. Grineva

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases

Email: a.a.grineva@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5796-5896

PhD (Medicine), Researcher, Department of Congenital Infectious Diseases

St. Petersburg 

Russian Federation

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