Features of the course of contemporary intestinal amebiasis

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Abstract

Acute intestinal infections, including intestinal amebiasis, remain a pressing public health problem. Amebiasis still represents an important and partially solved problem to health care. In the Astrakhan region, intestinal amebiasis is being continuously recorded. We analyzed the clinical picture of acute intestinal amebiasis in 150 adult patients dominated by female patients comprising 60.7%, aged 18 to 79 years old, and treated within 2010–2016 at the Regional Infectious Clinical Hospital. All patients were mostly of young and middle age (up to 50 years) — 108 patients. More than 50% of patients were admitted to the hospital within the first three days of the disease. However, in 35 cases (23.3%), late hospitalization was carried out (5 days after the onset). Proper diagnosis was made to 44 patients (29.3%), most commonly diagnosing preliminarily with acute gastroenteritis and acute dysentery. All cases of intestinal amebiasis were confirmed by detecting in the feces of patients with a vegetative form of entamoeba histolytica. The disease was featured with sporadic course, being mostly recorded during the summer-autumn period (78.0%). In 142 patients (94.7%), the moderate severity was observed. Cardiovascular disorders were mainly found in severe amebiasis as well as patients comorbid with cardiovascular diseases. A coprological method was used to confirm the diagnosis. Microscopic examination of feces was carried out immediately after defecation (warm type). A combination therapy was applied to patients with intestinal amebiasis. A great attention was paid to patient nutrition: high-protein sparing diet, grated food. Patients with ulcerative colitis received individualized diet (restricted carbohydrates, exclusion of milk and fiber). Etiotropic therapy was carried out with using 5-nitroimidazole preparations: metronidazole (Trichopol, Flagin, Tiberal), MacGioror, Tinidazole (Phasycin) combined with tetracycline. The treatment included group B vitamin cocktail, methyluracil (suppository), enzymes (creon, mezim, pancreatin), enterosorbents (smecta, polyphepan, enterosgel), antispasmodics (no-spa, drotaverin). Patients were administered with therapeutic microenemas containing furacilin solution, rosehip oil, and sea buckthorn oil. Infusion therapy consisting of polyionic solutions was applied by assessing blood electrolyte level. Fresh frozen plasma and albumin were transfused upon decline of serum protein and albumin level. Packed erythrocytes Erythrocyte mass and hemostatic drugs were injected in case of severe intestinal amebiasis if indicated: dicynone, cryoprecipitate, and calcium preparations. Finally, anemia cases were treated as well. In all cases, the disease outcome was favorable, without any mortality. Complications were noted in the form of intestinal bleeding observed in 6 patients (4.0%), wherein amebiasis proceeded together with ulcerative colitis. Acute intestinal amebiasis is currently featured with typical clinical picture that proceeds with less severe symptoms. Intestinal bleeding was observed in patients with intestinal amoebiasis in combination with ulcerative colitis. Chronization of intestinal amebiasis occurs in single cases (3.9%).

About the authors

L. p. Cherenova

Astrakhan State Medical University

Email: rudolf_astrakhan@rambler.ru

PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

Astrakhan

Russian Federation

R. S. Arakelyan

Astrakhan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: agma2000@rambler.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7549-2925

Arakelyan Rudolf S., PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

414000, Astrakhan, Bakinskaya str., 121

Russian Federation

T. M. Mikhailovskaya

Regional infectious clinical hospital named after A.M.Nichoga, Astrakhan

Email: k.infekchia@gmail.com

Head of the Department

Astrakhan

Russian Federation

References

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  2. Нарматова Э.Б. Сравнительная характеристика течения амебиаза кишечника в сочетании с другими кишечными инфекциями //Известия ВУЗов Кыргызстана. 2008. № 5-6. С. 314-316.
  3. Улуханова Л.И., Шабалина С.В., Байсугурова М.М. Сравнительная характеристика особенностей клинического течения дизентерии Флекснера VI у детей в период вспышки и при спорадической заболеваемости //Астраханский медицинский журнал. 2012. Т. 7. № 1. С. 131-135.

Copyright (c) 2020 Cherenova L.p., Arakelyan R.S., Mikhailovskaya T.M.

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