Sputum smear positivity grade and chest X-ray findings in tuberculosis: A cross-sectional study

Abstract

Despite many advances in the diagnosis, screening, and rapid treatment of tuberculosis, it is still a public health concern in the world. Due to the importance of this issue in diagnosis and reduction of transmission of infection and treatment of the disease especially where this study is conducted due to the high prevalence of tuberculosis, this study was done to determine The relationship between sputum smear positivity grade and chest X-ray findings in pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a hospital in southeast of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on all patients with pulmonary TB referencing the health centers in Zabol city, southeast of Iran from 1 January 2015 to 30 December 2020. Sputum smear and radiographic findings of the chest X-ray were evaluated. Data was collected using a form of information and finally analyzed by SPSS 22. Out of 101 patients examined in the present study, 71 were women and 30 were men. The mean age of the patients was 62.68 ± 13.61 years. The frequency of opacity in patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 was 71.4, 78.5, and 76.5%, respectively. Frequency of cavitation in patients with Grade 1, 2 and 3 was 11.5%, 28.5% and 52.9% respectively (P value 0.001). The frequency of reticulonodular presentations in patients with grade 1, 2, and 3 was 24.2, 7.1, and 0%, respectively.  In general, the results of this study showed that, with increasing grading of smears (1+, 2+, and 3+), the frequency of cavitation presentation increased significantly and the frequency of reticulonodular presentations decreased significantly. In general, the results of this study showed that, with increasing grading of smears (, the frequency of Cavitation presentation increased significantly and the frequency of reticulonodular presentations decreased significantly. The findings of the present study can help physicians better diagnose TB.

About the authors

R. Behzadmehr

Author for correspondence.
Email: afsargharehbaghr@gmail.com
Iran, Islamic Republic of

E. Nejadkehkha

Email: ganjresearch@gmail.com
Iran, Islamic Republic of

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  23. Nasiri MJ, Dabiri H, Darban-Sarokhalil D, Rezadehbashi M, Zamani S (2014) Prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran: systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of infection control 42 (11):1212-1218
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  25. Kyu HH, Maddison ER, Henry NJ, Ledesma JR, Wiens KE, Reiner Jr R, Biehl MH, Shields C, Osgood-Zimmerman A, Ross JM (2018) Global, regional, and national burden of tuberculosis, 1990–2016: results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2016 Study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18 (12):1329-1349
  26. Shankar S U, Kumar AM, Venkateshmurthy NS, Nair D, Kingsbury R, Velu M, Gupta J, Ahmed J, Hiremath S, Jaiswal RK (2021) Implementation of the new integrated algorithm for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Karnataka State, India: How well are we doing? PloS one 16 (1):e0244785
  27. Nakiyingi L, Bwanika JM, Ssengooba W, Mubiru F, Nakanjako D, Joloba ML, Mayanja-Kizza H, Manabe YC (2021) Chest X-ray interpretation does not complement Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis among TB-HIV co-infected adults in a resource-limited setting. BMC Infectious Diseases 21 (1):1-10
  28. Ayaz M, Shaukat F, Raja G (2021) Ensemble learning-based automatic detection of tuberculosis in chest X-ray images using hybrid feature descriptors. Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine:1-12
  29. Zeng J, Yang Q, Xu D, Chen Q, Huang K, Cai Y, Dai Y, Hai X, Zeng Z, Gong X (2021) Predictive Value of a Five-biomarker Signature to Diagnose Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients.
  30. Kebede W, Gudina EK, Balay G, Abebe G (2021) Diagnostic Implications and Inpatient Mortality Related to Tuberculosis at Jimma Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia. Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases:100220
  31. Talluri Rameshwari K, Jayashree K, Anuradha K Raghuraj Singh Chouhan and Sumana K, An Overview of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Smear Negative Cases and their Analysis.(2021). Int J Life Sci Pharma Res 11 (1):204-217
  32. WANG JY, LEE LN, Yu CJ, CHIEN YJ, YANG PC, Group T (2009) Factors influencing time to smear conversion in patients with smear‐positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Respirology 14 (7):1012-1019
  33. Krusiński A, Grzywa-Celińska A, Szewczyk K, Grzycka-Kowalczyk L, Emeryk-Maksymiuk J, Milanowski J (2021) Various Forms of Tuberculosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Treated with Biological Agents. International Journal of Inflammation 2021
  34. Abedipour F, Tirabadi NM, Khodaverdi E, Roham M A Review of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, Risk Factors and TB Epidemiology and Incidence in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine 7 (11):2020
  35. Marvi A, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Darabi M, Rostami-Maskopaee F, Siamian H, Abedi G (2017) Silent changes of tuberculosis in Iran (2005–2015): A joinpoint regression analysis. Journal of family medicine and primary care 6 (4):760
  36. Parcell BJ, Jarchow-MacDonald AA, Seagar A-L, Laurenson IF, Prescott GJ, Lockhart M (2017) Three year evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF in a low prevalence tuberculosis setting: a Scottish perspective. Journal of Infection 74 (5):466-472
  37. Brahmapurkar KP, Brahmapurkar VK, Zodpey SP (2017) Sputum smear grading and treatment outcome among directly observed treatment-short course patients of tuberculosis unit, Jagdalpur, Bastar. Journal of family medicine and primary care 6 (2):293
  38. Bisognin F, Amodio F, Lombardi G, Bacchi Reggiani M, Vanino E, Attard L, Tadolini M, Re MC, Dal Monte P (2019) Predictors of time to sputum smear conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis under treatment. New Microbiol 42 (3):171-175
  39. Saffari M, Jolandimi HA, Sehat M, Nejad NV, Hedayati M, Zamani M, Ghasemi A (2017) Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis. GMS hygiene and infection control 12
  40. Penn-Nicholson A, Hraha T, Thompson EG, Sterling D, Mbandi SK, Wall KM, Fisher M, Suliman S, Shankar S, Hanekom WA (2019) Discovery and validation of a prognostic proteomic signature for tuberculosis progression: a prospective cohort study. PLoS medicine 16 (4):e1002781
  41. Matsuoka S, Uchiyama K, Shima H, Suzuki K, Shimura A, Sasaki Y, Yamagishi F (2004) Relationship between CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and the number of acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears. Clinical imaging 28 (2):119-123
  42. Hassanzad M, Khalilzadeh S, Bloorsaz MR, Velayati AA (2015) Diagnostic criteria in children with tuberculosis. International Journal of Mycobacteriology 4:103

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Copyright (c) Behzadmehr R., Nejadkehkha E.

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