Features of developing SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein population-based seroprevalence during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Russian Federation

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Abstract

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, dubbed COVID-19, has become one of the most serious challenges for human populations in the vast majority of countries worldwide. Rapid spreading and increased mortality related to it required new approaches to manage epidemic processes on a global scale. One of such approaches was based on analyzing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence associated with COVID-19. Our aim was to summarize the results on assessing seroprevalence to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (Nc) in residents from 26 regions of the Russian Federation, carried out during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic.

Materials and methods. Seroprevalence distribution was examined in 26 model regions of the Russian Federation according to the unified method developed by the Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the Federal State Institution Saint Petersburg Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Such approach implied formation of a group of volunteer subjects in model geographic region who were tested by ELISA for anti-Nc serum antibody level in peripheral blood. Analyzed primary data obtained in separate regions were either accepted for publication or released.

Results. The current paper finalizes the data obtained in all 26 regions of the Russian Federation. The total SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 19.5 (10.0–25.6)% with the maximum and minimum value found in the Kaliningrad Region and the Republic of Crimea, respectively (50.2% vs. 4.3%). A pattern of age-related seroprevalence distribution indicates insignificant predominance of seroprevalence among subjects of 1–17 years old: 22.1 (13.1–31.8)%. Among COVID-19 convalescents positive for SARS-CoV Nc antibodies it reached 60.0 (40.0–73.3)%. The number of contact persons comprised 6285 subjects or 8.5% of total volunteer cohort, with the level of seroprevalence reaching up to 25.3 (17.95–35.8)%. A direct correlation was revealed between levels of seroprevalence in convalescent and contact volunteers. In addition, the reproductive number for SARS-CoV was calculated comprising 5.8 (4.3–8.5) suggesting that one convalescent subject can infect at least 4 healthy individuals. A high level of asymptomatic forms of COVID-19 among seropositive subjects was confirmed empirically comprising up to 93.6 (87.1–94.9)%.

Conclusion. A single cross-sectional study performed during 2020 June–August timeframe allowed to assess pattern of sex- and agerelated COVID-19 seroprevalence for general population in 26 Russian Federation regions. The data obtained may serve as a basis for the longitudinal cohort investigation with serial subject sampling. The timing and duration of study will be determined by dynamics of ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.

About the authors

A. Yu. Popova

Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2567-9032

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor).

Moscow.

Russian Federation

E. E. Andreeva

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Moscow

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Moscow.

Moscow.

Russian Federation

E. A. Babura

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Kaliningrad Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4610-752X

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Kaliningrad Region.

Kaliningrad.

Russian Federation

S. V. Balakhonov

Irkutsk Research Anti-Plague Institute

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4201-5828

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Director.

Irkutsk.

Russian Federation

N. S. Bashketova

Rospotrebnadzor Office for St. Petersburg

Email: vssmi@mail.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for St. Petersburg.

St. Petersburg.

Russian Federation

M. V. Bulanov

Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Vladimir Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Vladimir Region.

Vladimir.

Russian Federation

N. N. Valeullina

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Chelyabinsk Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Chelyabinsk Region. 

Chelyabinsk.

Russian Federation

D. V. Goryaev

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Krasnoyarsk Krai

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Krasnoyarsk Krai.

Krasnoyarsk.

Russian Federation

N. N. Detkovskaya

Rospotrebnadzor Office Primorsky Krai

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Primorsky Krai.

Vladivostok.

Russian Federation

E. B. Ezhlova

Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

PhD (Medicine), Deputy Head of the Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing.

Moscow.

Russian Federation

N. N. Zaitseva

Research Institute named after I.N. Blokhina

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5370-4026

PhD, MD (Medicine), Alternate of Deputy Director for Academic Affairs.

Nyzhniy Novgorod.

Russian Federation

O. A. Istorik

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Leningrad Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Leningrad Region.

St. Petersburg.

Russian Federation

I. V. Kovalchuk

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Stavropol Krai

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Stavropol Krai.

Stavropol.

Russian Federation

D. N. Kozlovskikh

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Sverdlovsk Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Sverdlovsk Region.

Ekaterinburg.

Russian Federation

S. V. Kombarova

Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology named after G.N. Gabrichevsky

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3382-6178

PhD, MD (Biology), Director.

Moscow.

Russian Federation

O. P. Kurganova

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Amur Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3010-3054

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Amur Region.

Blagoveshchensk.

Russian Federation

V. V. Kutyrev

Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute “Microbe”

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3788-3452

RAS Full Member, PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Director.

Saratov.

Russian Federation

A. E. Lomovtsev

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Tula Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4827-9587

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Tula Region.

Tula.

Russian Federation

L. A. Lukicheva

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Murmansk Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Murmansk Region.

Murmansk.

Russian Federation

L. V. Lyalina

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9921-3505

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Epidemiology of Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases.

St. Petersburg.

Russian Federation

A. A. Melnikova

Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5651-1331

PhD (Medicine), Deputy Head of the Epidemiological Surveillance Department.

Moscow.

Russian Federation

O. M. Mikailova

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Moscow Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Moscow Region.

Mytishchi.

Russian Federation

A. K. Noskov

Rostov-on-Don Anti-Plague Institute

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0550-2221

PhD (Medicine), Director.

Rostov-on-Don.

Russian Federation

L. N. Noskova

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Astrakhan Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Astrakhan Region.

Astrakhan.

Russian Federation

E. E. Oglezneva

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Belgorod Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Belgorod Region.

Belgorod.

Russian Federation

T. P. Osmolovskay

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Krasnodar Krai

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0471-9015

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Krasnodar Krai.

Krasnodar.

Russian Federation

M. A. Patyashina

Rospotrebnadzor Office for the Republic of Tatarstan

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6302-3993

PhD, MD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for the Republic of Tatarstan.

Kazan.

Russian Federation

N. A. Penkovskaya

Rospotrebnadzor Office for the Republic of Crimea

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for the Republic of Crimea.

Simferopol.

Russian Federation

L. V. Samoilova

Rospotrebnadzor Office for Novosibirsk Region

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru

Head of Rospotrebnadzor Office for Novosibirsk Region.

Novosibirsk.

Russian Federation

V. S. Smirnov

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Author for correspondence.
Email: vssmi@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2723-1496

Vyacheslav S. Smirnov - PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology.

197101, St. Petersburg, Mira str., 14.

Phone: +7 (911) 948-59-22 (mobile)

Russian Federation

T. F. Stepanova

Tyumen Research Institute of Regional Infectious Pathology

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6289-6274

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Director.

Tyumen.

Russian Federation

O. E. Trotsenko

Khabarovsk Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3050-4472

PhD, MD (Medicine), Director. 

Khabarovsk.

Russian Federation

Areg A. Totolyan

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: 123123@pasteurorg.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4571-8799

RAS Full Member, PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Director. 

St. Petersburg.

Russian Federation

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