Human cytopenia variants at diverse HIV infection stages

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Abstract

Over decades, HIV infection and its complications have been one of the most debated problems in the world. The human immunodeficiency virus not only weaken the immune system, but also disrupts normal hematopoiesis manifested as cytopenia (anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia). Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of cases of combined HIV infection and inhibited hematopoiesis was carried out according to hemogram data of patients admitted for treatment at the Infectious Clinical Hospital No. 1 named after D. Dalmatov, Omsk. The inclusion criteria were cytopenia during hospitalization detected in detailed blood test (by calculating hemoglobin level, counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets). The age of the patients included in the study differed: from 20 to 29 years — 27 patients (24.6%), from 30 to 39 years — 69 patients (62.7%), from 40 to 49 years — 13 patients (11.8%), over 50 years old 1 patient (0.9%). All patients had suppression of at least one hematopoietic cell lineage. Anemia was considered as decreased hemoglobin level below than 130 g/l in men and 120 g/l in women. Erythrocytopenia was considered as decreased erythrocyte count below 4.76 × 1012/L. Leukopenia was defined as decreased total count of leukocytes below 4.0 × 109/L, while a decrease in the absolute count of neutrophils below 1000 cells/μL was considered as neutropenia. Thrombocytopenia was determined as decreased platelet count below 150 × 109/L. Results. All patients had suppression of at least one hematopoietic cell lineage. 6 patients with stage 2 had one-cell lineage cytopenias, 7 — two-cell lineages. While analyzing the data obtained, it can be concluded that in patients with stage 2 HIV, inhibition of erythroid and platelet cell lineage predominates, whereas thrombocytopenia reached grade IV. At stage 3 HIV, all 7 patients had inhibition of only one cell lineage. In this group, the inhibition of hematopoiesis had a lighter degree in all hematopoietic cell lineages. In 46 patients with stage 4, there were various oppression of one of the hematopoietic cell lineages, in 44 patients there were two-cell lineage cytopenias. For patients with a more advanced stage of HIV, a decrease in the number of all cellular elements of the blood in the hemogram is characteristic; these disorders are more severe and persistent.

About the authors

D. V. Baryshnikova

Omsk State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: dashenkabar@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8016-1039

Daria V. Baryshnikova - Postgraduate Student, Department of Phthisiology and Infectious Diseases, Omsk State Medical University.

644099, Omsk, Lenina str., 12.

Phone: +7 (3812) 24-12-09 (office), +7 906 991-17-02 (mobile).

Russian Federation

A. V. Mordyk

Omsk State Medical University

Email: amordik@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6196-7256

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Department of Phthisiology and Infectious Diseases, Omsk State Medical University.

644099, Omsk, Lenina str., 12.

Russian Federation

L. V. Puzyreva

Omsk State Medical University; Dalmatov D.M. Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital No. 1

Email: puzirevalv@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0495-3645

PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Department of Phthisiology and Infectious Diseases, Omsk State Medical University.

644099, Omsk, Lenina str., 12.

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2021 Baryshnikova D.V., Mordyk A.V., Puzyreva L.V.

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