Study of features of humoral immune response to the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 among healthcare workers

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Abstract

Relevance. Since the beginning of the epidemic in China, there have been reports of nosocomial cases of SARSCoV-2 infection, including among medical workers. Studies of the intensity of humoral immune response to the SARSCoV-2 virus among medical workers who are much more likely to have professional contact with COVID-19 patients than are of particular importance. The aim is to study the seroprevalence and features of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 among medical workers. Materials and methods. The study included 61 medical workers from a multidisciplinary hospital in Kazan, which was redesigned to provide medical care to patients with new coronavirus infection, using the method of random sampling. The control group consisted of 60 non-medical workers. For the determination of IgG, a solid-phase ELISA was used. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using MS Excel software. The error of the relative value (M±m) was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the frequency of occurrence. To assess the significance of differences, the Student’s test (t-test) was used for independent samples. Results. The proportion of those seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 in the study group was 45.9%, compared with 21.7% in the control group. Among medical workers seropositive to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the proportion of asymptomatic forms was 18.5%, mild forms — 53.6%, moderate forms and severe forms 25%. Two forms of the formation of a humoral immune response among seropositive ones were revealed: the first is characterized by the gradual elimination of specific IgG antibodies to SARSCoV-2 after 8 weeks from the onset of the first symptoms of COVID-19, the second form is an increase in specific IgG to SARS-CoV-2 and a higher value of the coefficient level of IgM positivity to SARS-CoV-2 after 8–10 weeks from the onset of the first symptoms. The group of seropositive, “raising antibodies”, prevailed over the group of individuals “eliminating antibodies”. Among seropositive medical workers, two forms of the formation of a humoral immune response were revealed: synchronous with the parallel elimination of IgG and IgM antibodies and a parallel increase in IgG and IgM. Conclusion. The study of the level of humoral immunity to COVID-19 in medical workers is important in terms of planning both anti-epidemic measures and predicting the effectiveness of the response to vaccination to SARS-CoV-2.

About the authors

I. D. Reshetnikova

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor; Kazan Federal University

Author for correspondence.
Email: reshira@mail.ru

Irina D. Reshetnikova,  PhD (Medicine), Deputy Head; Associate Professor, Department of Fundamental Clinical Medicine 

420015, Kazan, Bolshaya Krasnaya str., 67

Phone: +7 (843) 236-67-41 

Russian Federation

Yu. A. Tyurin

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor; Kazan State Medical University

Email: tyurin.yurii@yandex.ru

PhD (Medicine), Head of Immunology Laboratory; Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics 

Kazan

Russian Federation

E. V. Agafonova

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor; Kazan State Medical University

Email: agafono@mail.ru

PhD (Medicine), Laboratory Diagnostics Doctor, Diagnostics Centre of Infection-Allergic Diseases; Assistant Professor, Department of Propedeutics of Child Diseases 

Kazan

Russian Federation

S. N. Kulikov

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor

Email: kuliks@yandex.ru

PhD (Biology), Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Immunology and Allergens Development 

Kazan

G. F. Gilyazutdinova

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor

Email: florimel17@yandex.ru

Epidemiologist, Diagnostics Centre of Infection-Allergic Diseases 

Kazan

Russian Federation

D. V. Lopushov

Kazan State Medical University; Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: doctor225@mail.ru

PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine and Human Ecology; Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Disinfectology 

Kazan

Russian Federation

N. D. Shaуkhrazieva

Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: epid-gkb7@mail.ru

PhD (Medicine), Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Desinfectology 

Kazan

Russian Federation

G. Sh. Isaeva

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor; Kazan State Medical University

Email: guzelleisaeva@yandex.ru

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Deputy Director for Innovative Development; Head of the Department of Microbiology named after Academician V.M. Aristovsky 

Kazan

V. B. Ziatdinov

Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor

Email: kniem@mail.ru

PhD, MD (Medicine), Director  

Kazan

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2021 Reshetnikova I.D., Tyurin Y.A., Agafonova E.V., Kulikov S.N., Gilyazutdinova G.F., Lopushov D.V., Shaуkhrazieva N.D., Isaeva G.S., Ziatdinov V.B.

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