History of investigation and current classification of coronaviruses (Nidovirales: Coronaviridae)

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  • Authors: Shchelkanov M.Y.1,2,3, Popova A.Y.4,5, Dedkov V.G.6, Akimkin V.G.7, Maleyev V.V.7
  • Affiliations:
    1. International Scientific and Educational Center for Biological Security of Rospotrebnadzor
    2. Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of RAS
    3. Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Primorsky Territory
    4. Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor)
    5. Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education
    6. St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute
    7. Central Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor
  • Issue: Vol 10, No 2 (2020)
  • Pages: 221-246
  • URL: https://iimmun.ru/iimm/article/view/1412
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-HOI-1412

Cite item


An epidemic of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) etiologically associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2) that occurred at the turn of 2019–2020 firstly in Wuhan (Hubei province of China) and then spread to many countries around the world rose a new wave of interest to coronaviruses. The first coronaviruses – members of the Coronaviridae family belonging to the order Nidovirales — were discovered in the first half of the last century. The first human coronavirus, HCoV-B814, was isolated in 1965 that was not preserved in available virological collections. Over the last time, old-fashioned names and terms have been overlapped. By the beginning of the XXI century coronaviruses posed a serious veterinary problem but it was believed that epidemic coronaviruses were not among highly dangerous viruses. Scientific community had to revise such views first in 2002 when SARS-CoV (Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus) was transferred to human population in the Southeast Asia from bats, and then in 2012 when natural foci of the MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus) were found on the territory of the Arabian Peninsula. Due to an increased interest in coronaviruses, a large number of new Coronaviridae members was discovered in the first two decades of the XXI century, which required to revise its taxonomic structure several times. This review is aimed at outlining a history of investigating coronaviruses and their current classification that was shaped in early 2020 in accordance to the last recommendations of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

About the authors

M. Yu. Shchelkanov

International Scientific and Educational Center for Biological Security of Rospotrebnadzor; Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of RAS; Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Primorsky Territory

Author for correspondence.
Email: adorob@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8610-7623

Mikhail Yu. Shchelkanov – PhD, MD (Biology), Associate Professor, Head of the International Scientific and Educational Center for Biological Security of Rospotrebnadzor in the Far Eastern Federal University; Head of the Laboratory of Virology, Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Expert of the “Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Primorsky Territory”

690091, Vladivostok, Utkinskaya str., 36
Phone: +7 924 529-71-09, +7 903 268-90-98 

Russian Federation

A. Yu. Popova

Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor); Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education

Email: depart@gsen.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9817-5092

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, Head of the Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare; Head of the Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Service Organization, Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education


Russian Federation

V. G. Dedkov

St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute

Email: vgdedkov@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5500-0169

PhD (Medicine), Deputy Director for Science

St. Petersburg

Russian Federation

V. G. Akimkin

Central Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor

Email: vgakimkin@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4228-9044

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, RAS Full Member, Director


Russian Federation

V. V. Maleyev

Central Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of Rospotrebnadzor

Email: depart@gsen.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8508-4367

PhD, MD (Medicine), Professor, RAS Full Member, Advisor of the Director


Russian Federation


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