Vol 3, No 4 (2013)

REVIEW ARTICLES

AUTOREACTIVE ANTIBODIES IN A HEALTHY HUMAN AND IN PATIENTS WITH VIRAL INFECTIONS

Krivitskaya V.Z.

Abstract

Abstract. This brief review presents the data obtained during the last two decades which allow to create a new view on autoimmunity. Regulatory and protective characteristics of autoreactive natural antibodies and their role in development of effective adaptive antiviral immune response are discussed. The article considers the problem of possible autoimmune complications due to some viral infections and antiviral vaccination.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):301-310
pages 301-310 views

HUMAN PARVOVIRUS В19: VIRUS CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND DIAGNOSTICS OF PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

Lavrentyeva I.N., Antipova A.Y.

Abstract

Abstract. The modern data about morphology as well as structural and functional organization of the parvovirus B19 genome, circulating virus genotypes are presented in the review. Special attention was paid to the clinical and epidemiological features of parvovirus infection (PVI). Authors focused on the distribution of PVI in different regions of Russia and on the own data concerning prevalence of this infection in the North-Western region of the country including data on pregnant women – main risk group for PVI. Methods of laboratory diagnostics of postnatal and congenital PVI have been described.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):311-322
pages 311-322 views

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

THE RAPID CULTURE METHOD FOR THE INDICATION OF RABIES VIRUS ANTIGEN IN INFECTED CELL CULTURES

Barkova E.P., Nagieva F.G., Nikulina V.G., Lisakov A.N.

Abstract

Abstract. The rapid culture method for the indication of antigens of rabies virus has been improved. It allows to detect the antigen of rabies virus within 5 hours from the moment the cell cultures was infected. To achieve this aim it is necessary to use cell culture BHK-F, polyclonal antirabies FITC labelled immunoglobulin and direct method of membrane immunofluorescense. Applying of twofold freshly filtrated 3% paraformaldehyde as fixing solution allows to detect early virus proteins of rabies virus.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):323-326
pages 323-326 views

ANALYSIS OF T-HELPER SUBSETS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C EXPRESSING CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS CXCR3 AND CCR6 AND ACTIVATION MARKERS CD38 AND HLA-DR

Elezov D.S., Kudryavtsev I.V., Arsentieva N.A., Semenov A.V., Esaulenko E.V., Basina V.V., Totolian A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. In case of hepatitis C the adequate adaptive immune response depends on T-helper lymphocyte subsets and recruiting specific T cells in the site of infection. The purpose of the study was to assess changes in subpopulations of T-helper cells bearing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CCR6 and activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C (n = 19) and healthy donors (n = 32). The T-helper phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry using a combination of monoclonal antibodies HLA-DR-FITC/CD38-PE/CD3-ECD/CCR6-PE-Cy7/CXCR3-APC/CD4-APC-Cy7. It was demonstrated reduction of CD38+ subset, increase of CXCR3+ and CCR6+ subsets of T-helper cells in particular CD3+CD4+ CXCR3+CCR6+ cells and importance of joint determination of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6 and the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR compared to their separate analysis in chronic hepatitis C.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):327-334
pages 327-334 views

ASSESSMENT OF THE SPECIFIC LOCAL HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY INCLUDING CASES ASSOCIATED WITH GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS

Mordyk A.V., Dolgyh T.I., Frolova N.B., Yakovleva A.A.

Abstract

Abstract. In order to optimize the detection and diagnosis of genital tuberculosis evaluation of the specific local antituberculosis immunity in 39 patients with infertility entered to the Department of Gynecology for the implementation of therapeutic and diagnostic laparoscopy has been carried out. All patients were divided into 3 groups: the 1st one included patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility, the group 2 included patients with infertility not associated with the defeat of the fallopian tubes, the third group was presented by patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility associated with genital tuberculosis who completed the basic course of anti-tuberculosis treatment. It was established that in case of the tubal-peritoneal infertility the local humoral immunity was characterised by increasing of IgM in the whole peritoneal fluid. Among women who recovered from genital tuberculosis increasing of IgA and IgG to M. tuberculosis was revealed in contrast to patients with infertility not associated with damage of fallopian tubes (p < 0.05). In 25% of patients of the 1st group genital tuberculosis was diagnosed. The diagnostic criteria for early detection of genital tuberculosis were determined and the algorithm of genital tuberculosis identification have been proposed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):335-340
pages 335-340 views

PREDNISONE THERAPY SAFETY FOR TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MIX OF TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV-INFECTION

Maksimov G.V., Mukomolov S.L., Ivanov A.K.

Abstract

Abstract. The study of prednisone safety for treatment of TB mixed with HIV-infection has been conducted. Two groups of patients were compared. The first group was consisted of 88 patients who were treated by prednisone and standard tuberculosis therapy, the second group of patients presented by 45 patients received only tuberculosis medicines. It was demonstrated that in case of prednisone using (1st group) the number of CD4 limphocytes increased, intoxication symptoms disappeared fast and recovery process accelerated. Increasing of cases with unfavorable course of TB and HIV-infection in patients of first group was not registered in compare with the second group. Thus, using of prednisone therapy to treat TB mixed with HIV-infection was safe, not lead to unfavorable course of TB or HIV-infection. Such kind of treatment especially important for patients with exudative reactions.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):341-346
pages 341-346 views

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

THE ACCELERATED METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CORYNEBACTERIUM

Gabrielyan S.A.

Abstract

Abstract. The detection of cystinase activity is one of most important tests in the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria, giving the opportunity to differentiate potential toxigenic species from other coryneform bacteria. The original recipe of Pizu media for detection of cystinase activity, proposed in 1939–1940, was modified several times (1982, 1989) for different reasons. In the last modification the Pizu media was prepared by using the AGV media as a nutritional base. We suggest a modification of Pizu media using Mueller-Hinton agar as nutritional basis. The Mueller-Hinton agar has a number of advantages: higher nutritional value, standardization, transparency and availability. A positive result is defined within 2–4 hours after inoculation of enough quantity of material (pure culture or C. diphtheriaе in association with other microorganisms) as a brown halo surrounding black colonies. The brown halo does not appear in the upper part of the media (0,5–1 cm). The modified media was checked with 21 strains of C. diphtheriaе (tox+), nine strains of coryneform bacteria, control strains NCTC 10648, NCTC 10356, NCTC 3984. The modified Pizu media is registered in the RA mental property agency as an invention (no. 1877 A2, 15.12.2006).

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):347-350
pages 347-350 views

RISK TO BE INFECTED BY PROVISIONALLY PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS, MOLD AND YEASTS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Kozulya S.V.

Abstract

Abstract. The samples of air were taken in 122 shops with the split air conditioning systems. The unfavorable changes of air quality were detected after switching of air-conditioning systems. Before switching of the air-conditioning systems, the provisionally pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria in the air were presented in 6.4% of samples, the mould fungi — in 27.8%, the yeast fungi — in 5.7%. After 30 minutes of split-systems operation, the provisionally pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria were found in 97.5% samples, mould fungi — in 72.1% and the yeast fungi — in 27.9%. Moreover, the species diversity of microorganisms in indoor air, after switching of split-system, was fully corresponded (100%) to the microflora of biofilms in internal block of the split-systems. Variants, in which microorganisms isolated from the biofilm in the condensate removal system after the switching split-systems was absent in premises air, were not determined. Thus, the microflora, which forms the biofilm in the condensate removal system, is a source of air pollution in the premises, where the split system were installed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):351-354
pages 351-354 views

MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE AND PRESENCE OF CLASS 1 INTEGRONS IN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE ENTERITIDIS, CIRCULATING IN ARMENIA

Sedrakyan A.M., Arakelova K.A., Zakaryan M.K., Hovhanisyan A.I., Asoyan A.V., Gevorkyan Z.U., Mnatsakanyan A.A., Ktsoyan Z.A., Boyajyan A.S., Aminov R.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of this work was detection of class 1 integrons and their contribution to the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in strains of   subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis. S. Enteritidis strains (n = 29) were isolated from patients with salmonellosis at “Nork” Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. High prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes was revealed and isolates with MDR phenotypes which are rare in the S. Enteritidis serotype were observed. Class 1 integrons were detected in 27,6% of isolates, with the prevalence of a variable region of 1000 bp. Occurrence of the MDR phenotype was more frequent in integron-positive isolates compared to integron-negative isolates of S. Enteritidis. Further studies are necessary to reveal the genetic background of MDR phenotypes and to estimate the genetic kinship among the isolates. Our results suggest a rapid and large-scale penetration of antibiotic resistance genes into populations of S. Enteritidis, which complicates infection control. More rigorous regulations should be imposed on antibiotic use, together with a vigilant epidemiological surveillance, to prevent the emergence and spread of MDR S. Enteritidis.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):355-358
pages 355-358 views

COMPARISON OF THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VACCINATION BY “PRIORIX”

Toptygina A.P., Alioshkin V.A.

Abstract

Abstract. Twenty healthy children were vaccinated, and then in a 5 years they were revaccinated with Priorix (measles, mumps, rubella vaccine), according to the national immunization calendar. The aim of the study was to observe and compare the shaping and maintenance of immunological memory. Specific IgM, IgA, IgG antibodies in serum, and their subclasses as well as antibodies avidity were tested by ELISA. It was demonstrated that IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies shaped primary immune response to Priorix. Booster-effect was found in IgG and IgA antibodies in response to revaccination. Low avidity of antibodies in primary immune response changed to the high avidity (60–70%) antibodies of memory response to measles and rubella, and remained low for antimumps antibodies. IgG3 subclass was predominant, and IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses were involved in primary immune response. At the stage of immunological memory IgG1 was predominanted and IgG3 and IgG4 became minor.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):359-364
pages 359-364 views

INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

Alexandrova G.A., Shchepina N.Y., Balandina S.Y., Boiko I.I., Agafonova I.M.

Abstract

Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei) of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):365-370
pages 365-370 views

ASSOCIATION BEETWEEN IL-28β POLYMORPHISMS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCOMITANT THERAPY OF HIV INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH HCV/HIV CO-INFECTION DURING THE ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

Kovaleva E.S.

Abstract

Abstract. The aim of the study was  to evaluate the associations between the polymorphism rs8099917 IL-28β and changing of HIV viral load and the effectiveness of high active antiretroviral therapy during the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients. 80 HIV/HCV-infected patients were recruited in the study. Antiviral therapy was performed with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin combined with concomitant HIV therapy. Polymerase chain method was used for the gene polymorphism IL 28b (rs8099917) and HIV viral load estimation. More than half (56.25%) patients treated with combined therapy showed a significant decrease in CD4 T-lymphocytes in TG- and TT-genotype groups. Furthermore, viral load of HIV RNA significantly declined in the group with TT genotype during the treatment. It was concluded that rs8099917 polymorphism of the gene IL-28β affects the dynamics of the HIV RNA viral load in HIV-infected patients receiving concomitant therapy for treatment of viral hepatitis C. Herewith, rs8099917 polymorphism combined with other factors can be used as a predictor of high active antiretroviral therapy effectiveness.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):371-375
pages 371-375 views

THE STUDY OF VIRUSES REPRODUCTION IN CELL CULTURES BY THE METHOD OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Kontarov N.A., Grishunina S.A., Balaev N.V., Yuminova N.V., Zverev V.V.

Abstract

Abstract. In the study the mathematical analysis of viruses reproduction in cell culture using the Marchuk’ mathematical model to predict  reproduction of virus in one or another cell cultures has been conducted. The obtained theoretical results are corresponded to the experimental data on reproduction of rubella virus in cell cultures RK-13 and BHK-21. The sum of theoretical and experimental results can be used to select the optimal cell cultures for virus cumulation.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):376-378
pages 376-378 views

FOR THE PRACTICAL PHYSICIANS

VIRAL HEPATITIS E DIAGNOSTICS

Malinnikova E.Y., Ilchenko L.Y., Mikhaylov M.I.

Abstract

Abstract. The results of clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in the M.P. Chumakov’ Research Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitis and in the different research institutions of the world have been summarized in the current article. Data on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis E are presented. Increasing of significance of this infection for health care system in Russia is emphasized . The actual problems of hepatitis E (autochthonic hepatitis E, hepatitis E as zoonosis, chronic hepatitis E) are discussed.

Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2013;3(4):379-384
pages 379-384 views

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